Eye-Opening Twitter Thread About How Insane Our Brains Are Will Trip You Out

Eye-Opening Twitter Thread About How Insane Our Brains Are Will Trip You Out






It is possible to feel the same sensations you feel during sex when thinking about/eating certain foods.

Upper Paleolithic art dating back 30,000 years depicts people using dildos to pleasure themselves and others. That means mankind invented sex toys long before the wheel.

study showed that women who wear warm socks in bed have a higher chance of achieving an orgasm.

Many men who have undergone cardiac arrest have been linked to being unfaithful in marriage.

Humans are not the only ones interested in performing oral sex — wolves, bears and bats are also known to participate in the practice quite often.

The average sex session goes for 100 to 500 thrusts.

Female penguins engage in a form of prostitution. Researchers have repeatedly observed female penguins exchanging sexual favors with male penguins that aren’t their mates in exchange for pebbles they will use to build nests for their babies.

When people aren’t having sex in the bedroom, the car is the most popular spot for intercourse.

According to many researchers, your skin is the largest sex organ in your body, and your brain is the most powerful.

The globe average for times having sex per year is 103. Greece leads the world with an average of 164, and Brazil is second with 145.

In 2004, Lisa Sparxxx had sex with 919 men in 24 hours.

Nearly 70% of males refuse to have sex with someone who is on their period.

Vaginas are long, just like penises. The average length of a vagina is 3 to 4 inches long but can expand 200% when they experience arousal.

If you have a cold, try having sex with your SO to clear up your nostrils instead of packing on the medicine. The adrenaline that hits your body when you get off causes your sinuses to become crystal clear.

Dr. Kellogg, the man who created Kellogg’s Cornflakes, was serious about stopping kids from masturbating. He believed that a healthy diet suppressed sexual desire.

Every day, worldwide, there are approximately 100 million cases of intercourse going on.

Studies show that people who have sex four or more times per week earn more than those who do not.

In the U.S. approximately 70% of people have admitted to fantasizing about group sex, with 50% of those people actually doing it.

The most common cause of penile fracture comes from aggressive masturbation.

When having an orgasm, your brain temporarily shuts down the amygdala, the part of the brain that triggers fear and anxiety.

The word “clitoris” is Greek for “divine and goddess-like.”

According to Pornhub, the kinkiest states are Wyoming, Alaska, Vermont, West Virginia, and Oregon. California, surprisingly, is the least kinky.

In case you were wondering, there is enough sperm in one single man to impregnate every woman on the planet who is fertile.

Having sex at least once per week can lower a man’s risk of heart disease by 30%, stroke by 50%, and diabetes by 40%. It has also been shown that men with an active sex life are more likely to live past 80 years.

A study at the American Sociological Association found that the most enjoyable sex is the result of being in love with your partner.

One out of every ten European babies is conceived on an IKEA bed.

Only 25% of women can orgasm from penetration. Other women cannot climax from penetration alone and need other stimulation to get there. Some women (10%) cannot even orgasm at all.

Some women reported that after an orgasm, they experienced short-term memory loss.

When aroused, your pain threshold increases significantly.

10 Biological Life Hacks that Actually Work

10 Biological Life Hacks that Actually Work -


The famous French writer and philosopher Voltaire once said common sense is not so common. This quote seems perfectly right even today. Even though we are surrounded by high-end technology, not all our problems need therapists or doctors. Some of them could be solved by using just some common sense and some basic science. After all, that’s what life hacks are made of. Here are ten such biological, life hacks that actually work.

1. If you feel you are overheating due to hot weather or during a workout, put cold water on your neck or wrist to cool down faster.

Image credit: Pixabay

Every year, the middle of summer brings those days when it feels just too hot to step outside. But if your job or other daily activity compels you to get out of your home, then there is a simple trick to keep yourself cool in the extreme heat. If you are feeling overheated, run a tap and bring your wrist under it. The cold water flowing over your wrist will bring down the temperature of blood in your arms. The cold blood will then recirculate throughout the body and bring down the overall body temperature.

Cold water over the wrist is also recommended for pregnant women who suffer from overheating. Cold packs or ice cubes on the pulse points such as wrists and neck can also bring the body temperature down effectively. Or else you can dip a towel in cold water, put it over your neck, and relax as your body cools down. (12)

2. While running, if you need to increase your speed, pump your arms faster than your legs. Your legs will follow suit.

Image credit: Pixabay

Running at a high speed is the goal of mainly two kinds of people, athletic runners and burglars. Jokes aside, athletes, especially sprinters, know the importance of arms while running. When we are running, the opposite arm moves as we step. This keeps the torso from rotating out of control and helps the body to move in a straight line. Since the arms counter the legs, pumping the arms will cause the legs to move faster, and hence we can run faster. This technique is mainly used by sprinters rather than distance runners. (123)

3. Making a hole by curling the fingers and looking through it will allow short- or long-sighted people to see or read something that they normally couldn’t do without glasses.



Imagine yourself visiting a new place for sightseeing when suddenly you remember your glasses are lying on the nightstand at home. All of us bespectacled people have faced a similar situation in our life at one time or other. In such a situation, a simple trick based on the “pinhole effect” can save the day.

The trick is to make a tiny hole with one of your fingers. For most people, it works best with the index finger. Curl your index finger such that it forms a small hole in the middle, then look through it. The object or text you are viewing will appear considerably clearer. This trick works on the principle of the pinhole effect. The small hole blocks the surrounding light bringing the object we are viewing into focus. The resulting image is darker as only a small amount of light is entering into our eye. (12)

4. Fasting for 12 to 16 hours during a flight can help in avoiding jet lag.

Image credit: Sekru/Wikimedia

Jet lag is the worst enemy of frequent, long-distance fliers. If you too are its victim, then there is a good news for you. You can manipulate your body’s biological clock by manipulating your feeding clock. This revelation has been made by Dr. Clifford B. Saper and his colleagues at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. According to Dr. Saper, fasting before and during long flights can help the human body in averting jet lag.

If you are going to take a 14-hour flight and want to avoid jet lag, then you should take the following steps:

1. Avoid all food after reaching the airport which is usually about two hours before departure.
2. During the flight, avoid eating any food. Remember to drink plenty of water.
3. Eat soon after landing. For best results, try eating as close to the local meal times as possible. (12)

5. Hangovers occur mainly due to hydration. So, while drinking have a glass of water after every alcoholic drink to prevent a hangover.

Image credit: Pixabay

Almost all of us at one time or other have gone to a bar promising to have just one drink and woke up the next day with both a headache and a hangover. The situation becomes worse if there is an exam or office presentation the next day. But fret not as there is a very simple hack which can save you from a hangover the next time you go drinking. The trick is to drink a glass of water or fruit juice after every drink.

Hangover is caused due to the diuretic effect of alcohol resulting in dehydration. A headache and the icky feeling of a hangover is a result of this dehydration. According to Anthony Giglio, a wine expert in New York City and author of Mr. Boston’s Official Bartender’s Guide, matching each alcoholic drink with a glass of water will replace the lost fluids while preventing you from overindulgence. (12)

6. Taking a warm shower before you get in bed can help you to fall asleep much faster.

Image credit: Pixabay

A the end of a stressful day, our body craves six to eight hours of sound, uninterrupted sleep. But not all people drift right off to sleep after hitting the pillow. A simple and effective hack for them is to take a warm shower before going to bed. When you take a warm shower, there is a temporary spike in your body temperature. After you towel off, the moisture on your skin evaporates, inducing a chilling effect. This lowers your body temperature indicating to the brain that it’s time for sleep.

A warm shower doesn’t work for all people. Some people get a more restful sleep after a cold shower. So, it’s best that you should decide for yourself which one works best for you: a warm or cold shower. Showering before sleep is also psychologically beneficial as it represents washing off the stress and tension of the day and going to sleep with a clean mind and body. (12)

7. If you are suffering from heartburn and acid reflux, sleep on your left side to get relief.

Image credit: Pixabay

Lucky are those who can enjoy a good night’s sleep after a hearty meal. As for the unlucky ones whose sleep gets ruined due to heartburn and acid reflux, try sleeping on your left side. According to David A. Johnson, MD, internal medicine division chief at Eastern Virginia School of Medicine, Norfolk, sleeping on the left side helps to reduce the symptoms of nighttime heartburn and bring relief.

The reason is not entirely clear. According to one hypothesis, sleeping on the left side keeps the level of gastric acid below the stomach and esophagus. Hence, it prevents the acid from entering into the esophagus. Another way to ease heartburn is to sleep with the upper body elevated. (123)

8. If you are prone to headaches, pinch the area between your thumb and index finger for thirty seconds. It will alleviate the headache.

Image credit: Mk2010/Wikimedia

Our body has certain pressure points. When we apply the right amount of pressure on these areas, it can provide relief to the body. This process is known as acupressure. To treat headaches, we should apply pressure on the pressure points called the “union valley points.”

The union valley points are situated on the area between your thumb and index finger. Firmly pinch this area for 10 seconds. Then, using the thumb of your other hand, make small clockwise circles on this area for 10 seconds. Then make anticlockwise circles for 10 seconds. Then repeat the whole process on the other hand. This pressure point treatment will bring relief to headaches. (12)

9. To stop hiccups, eat a spoonful of creamy peanut butter very slowly.

Image credit: Pixabay

Hiccups are one of the greatest medical mysteries. No one knows what triggers them or what purpose they serve. Many medical studies have been conducted to know how to stop them, and yet there is no definite cure. As for homemade cures, there is one hack which has worked for most people: peanut butter. Take a spoonful of peanut butter and hold it in your mouth for five seconds. Then, swallow it very slowly. You will notice that your hiccups will stop immediately. (12)

10. While eating fish, if a bone gets stuck in your throat, take a bite of a ripe banana and swallow it without chewing much. It will drag the bone down with it.

Image credit: Pixabay

Boning a fish is a very important step while prepping it for any recipe. That’s because having a fishbone accidentally stuck in the throat is the nightmare of all fish lovers. If this happens to you, do not worry. Just keep calm and take a bite of a ripe banana. Chew it lightly so that it is just soft. The bone will be dislodged once you swallow the lightly chewed banana. Then, drink water to clear your throat. In case this method doesn’t work, seek medical help immediately. (source)

The Surprising Ways Humans Are Still Mutating

The Surprising Ways Humans Are Still Mutating

From stronger resistance to HIV to the simple ability to drink milk, there are many ways humans are still evolving.

How Do Turtles Live So Long?

How Do Turtles Live So Long?

We all know turtles live an amazingly long time, but what's their secret? And can we apply it to humans?

10 Science Myths You Probably Still Believe

10 Science Myths You Probably Still Believe -


Look, there's a lot of science out there, so perhaps it's understandable that not everybody can be 100% right all of the time, but there are certain myths and misconceptions out there that, despite being roundly and decisively debunked, adamantly refuse to die.

Most of us know that the internet is not to be trusted, but we generally trust our parents and teachers to give us the right information. Sadly, however, many of these myths are learnt at our mothers' knees or, even worse, in science textbooks. What's more, with the half life of knowledge, even those tidbits of information that were thought to be true when we first learnt them, could have since been disproven.

So what can you do? Other than hang the sense of it and resign yourself to living in ignorance and fear for the rest of your days, that is.

There's no easy way to sort the fact from the fiction, but sometimes even a little bit of interrogation into some of the most popular old wives' tales cause them to fall apart at the seams.

The best parts is that, because these myths are so widely circulated, the chances of you being able to gleefully correct someone once you learn the truth are pretty high.

10. Days Get Shorter In The Winter


Surely this one is true? It certainly feels dark and horrible in the winter.

This, however, gets a thumbs-down on a technicality, as the first day of winter, December 21st/22nd, is also the shortest day of the year, meaning that the subsequent days of winter after that are actually getting progressively longer.

Similarly, the first day of summer is also the longest day of the year, meaning that the subsequent days get progressively shorter.

In fact, if you were to split the year up into two halves between the two solstices, winter and summer, at a single location they each contain exactly the same amount of daylight.

9. Tongue Rolling Ability Is Genetic


Between 65 and 81 percent of people on the planet can roll thier tongue and most people will learn that this is down to their genes. Seeing as we knew by the 1950s that pairs of twins could have different tongue rolling abilities, this seems highly unlikely.

In reality, it's likely to be a developmental difference. Perhaps a trick that is learnt by some in early infancy by discovering a certain group of muscles, but others never master it, a bit like ear-wiggling. In fact, an experiment in the 1940s found that the skill could be taught, increasing the number of tongue rollers in a group of of 6–12 year olds by 20%. For the same reason you can learn how to walk, but not how to have blue eyes, this implies that it is not genetic but learnt behaviour.

If this were true, then two non-rolling parents could never produce a tongue roller, providing a simple alternative to paternity testing.

8. The Earth Is Closer To The Sun During Summer*


*In the northern hemisphere.

Apologies to the southerners out there, this is a very northern-centric misconception.

It seems to make logical sense to us that the hottest days of the year would coincide with the closest point in the Earth's elliptical orbit (or the perihelion if you want to get fancy), but in reality, we are at our cosiest with our solar neighbour in January.

In actual fact, the reason why it is hotter during the northern summer months is to do with the Earth's tilt on its axis. During this time, the Earth is tilted towards the sun, causing its rays to hit us more directly, whereas during the winter months, the rays hit us at a more oblique angle, making it cooler.

This is, of course, all reversed in the southern hemisphere when the hottest months do indeed coincide with the perihelion.

7. Water Conducts Electricity


Whilst it's probably not a great idea to take your toaster into the shower with you, water is actually not a great conductor of electricity.

In fact, the conductivity of water is based on how many impurities it has in it, as it is actually there that are conducting the electricity. Seawater, for example, is an excellent conductor of electricity due to its high salt content, but distilled water that has had all of its impurities removed will act as an insulator at normal voltages.

Tap water, although it tastes fresh, also has impurities in it and will conduct electricity, which is why it is still a bad idea to use electrical items in your bathroom.

6. Water Is Blue Because It Reflects The Sky


Most of us learn this as a kid, when our beleaguered parents have spent all day answering our persistent questions about the world. By the time the "Why is the sea blue?" question rolls around, they're too tired to even google it and will probably have told us that it's because it reflects the sky (unfortunately, this usually leads to the "Why is the sky blue?" conversation).

In fact, water is blue because it's blue.

In small quantities, it appears to be clear, water's blue hue becomes more and more apparent as the volume increases. Large quantities of water are actually blue, regardless of the colour of the sky, because it absorbs longer light wavelengths (the "red" end of the spectrum) and scatters the shorter blue wavelengths. Basically, the ocean is blue for the same reason the sky is blue.

5. There Are Left Or Right Brained People


Regardless of what that quiz on Facebook said, you're not actually left- or right-brained. The myth is that logical and analytical people have a dominant left side of their brain, and creative people have a dominant right side.

The myth probably arises from the idea of lateralization in neuroscience - that is, that the regions for certain functions are found in one side of the brain. The speech centres, for example, are usually contained in the left side of the brain for right-handed people.

That previous point also highlights another problem with the theory of left and right brainedness, and that is that the lateralisation of your brain often relates to the "dominant" side of your body as opposed to your arbitrarily perceived character traits. In fact, studies of over 1,000 brain scans have shown that there is no evidence that some people use one side of their brain more than the other, and that our personalities and abilities arise from using the brain as a whole.

The myth mostly just seems to serve the purpose of giving "creative types" something to feel smug about.

4. One Dog Year Is Equal To Seven Human Years


No one really knows where the 7:1 myth comes from and, in fact, it wasn't always seven. A 13th century source puts it at 9:1 and an 18th century naturalist named Georges Buffon put it closer to 10:1. In actual fact, the lifespan and maturity rates of dogs are just not comparable to humans in many ways.

Firstly, the lifespan of dogs vary between breeds and sizes, so there would be no one-size-fits-all solution anyway. Oddly, in a break from the general rule of nature, dogs' lifespans are inversely related to their size, meaning that smaller dogs live longer.

Secondly, dogs mature much faster than humans in their early years and much slower in their later years, often reaching sexual maturity in the first year of life. If humans really aged seven times slower than dogs, then we would all be ready to get married and have babies by the age of seven, and still enjoy the fitness of youth well into our 80s.

3. Elephants Are The Only Mammal That Can't Jump


To be fair, it is true that elephants can't jump. Despite their bulk, elephants have pretty weak lower leg and ankle structures that would be incapable of lifting four tonnes of elephant any higher than they need to.

It is not true, however, that elephants are the only mammal that can't jump. Sloths, hippos, rhinos and giraffes all fall into the category of non-jumping mammals, mostly because they simply don't need to (although hippos, rhinos and giraffes can lift all four feet off the ground when they run).

If we widen our search for non-jumpers to the animal kingdom in general (as the myth sometimes implies that elephants are the only animals that can't jump) then there are plenty to choose from. Have you ever, for example, seen an earthworm jump?

2. Bees Die After They Sting You

Warner Bros

We often view bees and the friendlier, fluffier version of wasps, and the myth that they die after stinging you probably has a large part to play in this. The poor bee is sacrificing its life in defence of queen, country and sugary snacks, what a noble little insect, whereas wasps can sting you as much as they like, making them buzzing b*stards.

Apart from the fact that it's not true.

There are 20,000 species of bee, and only one of those species, the honeybee, will die if they sting you. The rest will merrily sting away if they feel they are being threatened.

If you want to find a true villain in the story, then it might be worth knowing that it is only ever the female worker bees and wasps that sting, male bees are harmless, and can be identified by their smaller size in comparison with the males.

1. Drink Lots Of Milk For Healthy Bones


This is hammered into us from an early age, but is milk really all that good for bones?

It turns out that the answer is not as clear cut as the dairy industry would have you believe. A massive study in Sweden, conducted with 61,400 women and 45,300 men over the course of 20 years, found that drinking milk could actually increase the risk of fractures in women, and increased mortality for both sexes. The explanation offered for this unexpected result was the possibility that milk's sugar content increases oxidative stress in the body, aging it prematurely.

Other studies have also failed to find a protective relationship between milk and osteoporosis and others suggest that it may even contribute to the risk of prostate and ovarian cancers, autoimmune diseases, and some childhood ailments.

Whilst we can't rule out the possibility that other factors, such as general lifestyle and activity levels of those in milk-drinking countries, are playing a part in the results - correlation is not causation after all - things aren't looking good for the cows.




Can you pick the path that air follows in the respiratory system starting in the nasal cavity?


SCIENCE IN YOUR FACE! DNA Animations By Wehi.tv For Science-Art Exhibition

SCIENCE IN YOUR FACE! DNA Animations By Wehi.tv For Science-Art Exhibition -


Deep down. we're all weird and creepy.

11 Things About Sex Everyone Should Know

11 Things About Sex Everyone Should Know -


Most of us had to sit through some sort of sex education class. I remember we spent a week on it my freshman year of high school health and it was the most awkward, hysterical week of my entire school career. Not only that, but most of the knowledge I gained was neither helpful nor particularly humorous–or up-to-date for that matter. The following facts, however, are informative and provocative. This is the kind of shit they should be teaching!


The average man lasts a staggering six minutes in bed. The average obese man, however, lasts a full 7.3 minutes. Another reason to rock that dad bod! Wondering why this is the case? Scientists believe overweight people have higher levels of the female sex hormone oestradiol. This chemical imbalance in men inhibits the male orgasm.



Pillow talk isn’t always all it’s cracked up to be. In fact, most of the time is bullshit apparently. This is believed to be cause by the fact that we’re all trying to impress our partners, ensuring the deed happens and that they’re having a good time.



This has been somewhat alleviated through engineering and changing designs, but the pressure of the bicycle seat against a man’s groin can lead to permanent decrease in sexual function.



All those radio waves and junk floating in the air seem to be killing off our swimmers. Pesticides and other hormone-disrupting chemicals as well as diet, stress, smoking and obesity are also largely to blame.



According to this study, those who make more money tend to have more sex. This study did, however, focus on Greece which could lend more or less credence to it depending who you ask.



Since shaved or waxed skin is so much more vulnerable to tearing and cuts, it’s far easier for infections to set in.



The spasms of a female orgasm help to push sperm into the cervix. So, if you’re trying to make a little person, make sure you please your woman completely.



… but the right is usually larger. There are many theories for why this is the case, such as each testicle being a different size and length so they don’t press against each other and can better control temperature.



That’s right, each man has enough swimmers to knock up every woman on Earth. Is this nature’s way of fighting extinction in case you ever are literally the last man on Earth?



But not just that, many other tissues in your body swell also. This is caused by the increased blood flow to blood vessels throughout your body.




84 Interesting Orgasm Facts

84 Interesting Orgasm Facts -

    • The word “orgasm” is from the Greek word orgasmos, which is defined as “to swell with moisture, be excited or eager.”[3]
    • An orgasm is the “buildup of pleasurable body sensations and excitement to a peak intensity that then release tensions and creates a feeling of satisfaction and relaxation.”[2]
    • Orgasms feel generally similar for men and women. The two body parts primarily involved in orgasms, the penis and clitoris, are homologous, meaning they both originate from the same tissue in the developing embryo. Additionally, the spinal cord and brain are connected to the penis and clitoris by the same nerve route—a pair of pudendal nerves.[4]
    • Not all orgasms feel the same. Because the genitals are connected to several different pairs of nerves, stimulating different combinations of nerves produces different sensations. Additionally, orgasms are affected by cognitive, psychological, and pharmacological variables.[2]
    • A “blended” orgasm is an orgasm that occurs when two or three regions of the genital area have been stimulated, creating an additive effect. For example, in women, the clitoris is connected mainly to the pudendal nerves, the vagina mainly to the pelvic nerves, and the cervix to the hypogastric, pelvic, and vagus nerves. Stimulating them together can create a more encompassing, “blended” orgasm.[4]
    • Most researchers agree that Kegel exercises (named after gynecologist Arnold Kegel) increase the likelihood of orgasm. Kegels exercise the PC (pubococcygeus) muscles.[2]

    • Men’s orgasms stimulate the same area of the brain as does heroin in an addict’s brain, strongly suggesting that sex can be addictive.[2]
    • Multiple orgasms are orgasms that occur in close succession, from a few seconds to a few minutes apart. Multiple orgasms are more frequently associated with women; however, men can experience them as well. In fact, Chinese documents from in 2968 B.C. describe men’s multiple orgasms.[4]
    • Using condoms does not affect the quality of an orgasm. A woman is equally likely to experience an orgasm with or without a condom. If a man is resistant to wearing a condom, partners may consider manual stimulation first.[4]
    • According to Planned Parenthood, 30% of women have had trouble reaching an orgasm. As many as 80% have difficulty reaching orgasm through vaginal intercourse.[2]
    • Orgasms can be elicited from various regions of the body—including the penis, clitoris, vagina, G-spot, cervix, prostrate, nipples, breasts, and anus—as well as from visual stimulation, auditory stimulation, and mental imagery.[6]
    • Orgasms do not stop at a certain age. Some people can experience orgasms past the age of 90.[4]
    • The time it takes to reach an orgasm varies considerably. Orgasm also depends on a variety of factors such as age, sexual experience, and drugs. Men typically require 2–10 minutes to reach orgasm (though men who experience “delayed orgasms” may need an hour or more of stimulation). While women typically require a more prolonged period of stimulation before an orgasm (often 20 minutes), some women can have an orgasm within 30 seconds of self-stimulation.[6]
    • While the time it takes to reach orgasm is different for different people, the length of the orgasm itself is more similar. In one study, women’s orgasms lasted 18 seconds on average, and men’s orgasms lasted about 22 seconds. Another study found that a woman’s orgasms last about 3–15 seconds, while a man’s orgasm is shorter.[6]
    • Approximately 15%–20% of American women have never had an orgasm.[6]

No woman gets an orgasm from shining the kitchen floor.

- Betty Friedan

    • The duration of an orgasm is usually just seconds for both men and women, but multiple factors influence exactly how long it will last, including age, period of sexual abstinence, type of sexual stimulation, and whether the orgasm is from masturbation or intercourse.[2]
    • In one study, 85% of men reported that their partner had an orgasm. However, only 64% of their female partners reported experiencing an orgasm, creating what some sexologists call an “orgasm gap.”[1]
    • Different religions recommend different times for people to engage in marital coitus (and, presumably, orgasm). For men, the following recommendations were made: 1) Zoroaster (Persian religious leader), once in 9 days; 2) Hindu authorities, 3–6 times per month; 3) Solon, Athenian statesman and poet, 3 times per month; 4) the Koran, once per week; 5) the Talmud, once per day to once per week, depending on occupation; and 6) Martin Luther, founder of Protestantism, twice per week.[2]
    • How often a person experiences orgasm varies considerably among different peoples and cultures. Some societies have recommended that men experience orgasm infrequently because orgasms and ejaculation are considered debilitating. Other societies have considered orgasm and sexual activities as highly beneficial for vigor and health.[4]
    • The duration of an orgasm tends to decrease as a person ages.[2]

    • Anorgasmia means “lack of orgasm.” This condition, where a person cannot achieve orgasm, can affect both men and women.[3]
    • After a man experiences an orgasm, there is a “refractory period,” when they can’t have another orgasm (although some men can experience multiple orgasms). The “recharge time” depends on age, sexual partner, and sexual experience.[2]
    • There is a clear relationship between a woman’s age and the likelihood she’ll experience an orgasm. In a 1994 U.K. study of 436 women, 63% of women 35-39 years old experienced orgasm during more than half of or all of their sexual interactions. Only 21% of women 55-59 reported this frequency. Five percent of the younger women but 35% of the older women had not experienced an orgasm at all.[2]
    • One man reported six successive orgasms (with decreasing volume of semen) in less than 40 minutes.[4]
    • Orgasms have been reported by stimulation after male-to-female or female-to-male transsexual surgery.c[2]
    • Nongenital orgasms have been reported by people who are under the influence of psychedelic drugs.[4]
    • People who experience orgasms often look like they are pain. In fact, two of the brain regions that are activated by pain are also activated during orgasm, perhaps accounting for the curious similarity of facial expressions. Scientists are unsure how the brain distinguishes between pain and pleasure.[4]
    • Female ejaculation is not urine (though women may expel urine during an orgasm). It resembles diluted fat-free milk and has a sweet taste. Although the volume may seem large during an orgasm, the total amount of liquid released during an orgasm usually is not over 1 teaspoon (4 ml).[2]
    • For some women, stimulation of the nipples and breasts can increase the likelihood of having an orgasm and increase its intensity. However, in some women, this stimulation has no effect or a negative effect.[2]
    • Orgasms can relieve pain, albeit for only about 8–10 minutes afterwards. However, even thinking about sex can relieve pain.[1]

    • The world record for a woman masturbating to orgasm is 6 hours and 30 minutes. The world record for man masturbating to orgasm is 8 hours and 30 minutes.[5]
    • Approximately 47% of women experienced their first orgasm through masturbation. The average age to experience it is 18.[2]
    • Two types of fluid are associated with women’s orgasm: vaginal lubricant and female ejaculate.[2]
    • During sex, vaginal lubricant seeps into the vagina canal from blood capillaries in the vaginal lining (a process called transudation). Antihistamines may interfere with vaginal lubrication in the same way they inhibit a runny nose.[2]
    • During an orgasm, a woman may experience ejaculation regularly, rarely, or never. In other words, while female ejaculation is normal, it is not universal. One research study, however, suggests that all women ejaculate during orgasms, though the volume is usually too small to be noticed.[2]
    • Women who feel less secure in their relationship are less likely to orgasm.[1]
    • Aristotle is considered to be the first to write about female ejaculation. Galen, the famous Greco-Roman physician and philosopher, also knew about it in the 2nd century AD.[3]
    • Before restrictions were imposed on this type of research, orgasms were produced by direct electrical or chemical stimulation of the brain.[3]
    • Orgasms have been reported unexpectedly by electrical stimulation of the spine, initially done for pain control.[3]
    • Researchers note that a woman might be more likely to become pregnant if she has an orgasm. An orgasm increases a suction produced by wave-like contractions of the uterus that draw in ejaculated semen that has been deposited near the cervix.[2]

    • Orgasms can be produced in women and men with spinal cord injuries by a loved one caressing hypersensitive nongenital skin zones near the site of their injury.[3]
    • Body positions during vaginal intercourse can affect orgasm in women.[4]
    • The French refer to an orgasm as the le petit mort—“the little death.”[4]
    • While most couples say the penis size does not affect a woman’s orgasm, some women say the length and, most importantly, the girth of a penis is important. However, just as penises vary in size and shape, so do vaginas. So size preference, or the idea of a “good fit,” is hard to generalize.[2]
    • Orgasms are affected by a woman’s menstrual cycle. Researchers at Yale report that when a woman is not menstruating, her orgasms during intercourse produce traveling wave-like uterine contractions that can suck semen into the uterus. By contrast, during menstruation, orgasms produce uterine contractions that travel in the opposite direction, which pushes debris out of the uterus instead of sucking inward.[2]
    • Studies show that the application of a transdermal androgen patch, which is designed to release low amounts of testosterone through the skin and into the bloodstream, has positive effects on a woman’s orgasm and sexual satisfaction. This is especially true for postmenopausal women, women who have had their ovaries removed, and women who have an androgen-insufficiency disorder.[2]

    • Both men and women can delay orgasm through a variety of ways. For example, in some practices of Hinduism—such as Tantra, which emphasizes sexual intercourse for religious purposes—techniques allow some individuals to control ejaculation and orgasm.[4]
    • Scientists have created a neuro-stimulation device for woman that can deliver remote-controlled orgasms.[2]
    • Ejaculation and orgasm don’t necessarily require an erection. Many men who have had surgery for prostate cancer are able to experience orgasm without an erection.[2]
    • Scientists are unsure why some men experience significantly increased sensitivity and even pain of the penis after orgasm.[2]
    • Women sometimes experience orgasms while giving birth. These orgasms have been called “birthgasms.”[2]
    • Men can have an orgasm without the stimulation of his penis. In fact, most men have experienced an orgasm while asleep (also known as a wet dream). Additionally, in rare cases (3 or 4 men out of 5,000), men have had an orgasm without tactile stimulation while awake.[2]
    • Some men who practice a specialized form of rapid breathing and Tantric meditation (“fire breath”) reportedly have experienced orgasm without physical genital stimulation.[2]
    • Ancient Egyptians believed that the god Atum created the world through masturbating and that the Tigris River was formed by the semen of a god.[2]
    • Due to surgery, psychosexual/psychological trauma, certain medications, or neurological damage, some men can experience orgasm with no ejaculatory fluid expelled, and others can ejaculate without feeling an orgasm. And yet other men can voluntarily separate their orgasm from ejaculation. For example, Tantric sex teaches a man to delay his ejaculation until he feels ready, even through an orgasm.[2]
    • A recent study shows that the ability to climax may be linked to genetics.[2]

    • While orgasms usually result from genital stimulation, orgasm can occur from nongenital stimuli as well, including 1) thinking of an orgasm; 2) orgasms experienced during meditation; 3) orgasms produced by stimulating any part of the body, including mouth, lips, nipples, anus, shoulder, or toe; 4) orgasms during childbirth; 5) orgasms during defecation and “forceful urination; and (6) one woman reported having orgasms while brushing her teeth.[2]
    • A typical orgasm produces about 5 ml, or 1 teaspoonful, of semen.[2]
    • Different types of illegal and legal drugs affect orgasms in both positive and negative ways. Steroids (especially testosterone), Yohimbine, cocaine, and dopamine have positive or stimulating effects on orgasms. On the other hand, antidepressant drugs have a negative effect.[2]
    • Men and women with spinal cord injuries, with no nerve connections between their external genitals and their brain, have experienced orgasms while asleep.c[2]
    • The clear fluid that comes out of the penis before ejaculation is called pre-ejaculate. It can be so abundant as to fill 1/5 of a teaspoon. Medieval writers called it “the distillate of love.”[2]
    • While orgasms are felt in the brain, the orgasmic process involves virtually every body system. Researchers note that the brain is the “conductor of the orgasmic orchestra.”[2]
    • At least eight species of female primates show signs that they experience orgasms, including behavior responses (a “climax face”) and physiological responses such as uterine contractions, contractions of tissues surrounding the vagina, and increased heart and respiratory rate.[2]
    • The book The Fundamentals of Sex claims that it is possible for some women to experience orgasms up to 100 times in an hour.[4]

    • Scientists can infer a woman’s history of vaginal orgasm by the way she walks.[7]
    • The Prague Sex Machines Museum has over 200 objects and machines, including some from hundreds of years ago, that have helped people achieve orgasms and sexual satisfaction.[2]
    • An orgasm burns just 2–3 calories, though a person can burn around 50 calories in the activity leading up to the orgasm.[4]
    • For men, having an orgasm two or more times a week is a sign that he is more likely to live longer.[2]
    • When former vice president of the U.S. Nelson A Rockefeller died of a heart attack during sex with a much younger woman in a hotel room, people began to wonder if orgasms caused heart attacks or “death in the saddle.” Orgasms don’t seem to be directly linked to heart attacks, although the physical exertion leading up to an orgasm could trigger heart stress—especially if the man is married but is with a non-spouse in an unfamiliar setting after consuming a big meal and alcohol. In fact, 70% of coital deaths have occurred during extramarital intercourse.[4]
    • While orgasms have been linked to pain relief, they can also cause headaches known as “orgasmic headaches.” Physicians note that these are similar to headaches after exercise and are caused by a temporary rise in blood pressure and muscle spasms of the neck and scalp.[2]
    • San Francisco’s Centre for Sex & Culture organizes an annual masturbate-a-thon. The participants meet at the center and masturbate for charity.[5]
    • No one knows with certainty why some men become so sleepy after an orgasm. A 175-pound man participating in vigorous sex for 30 minutes expends a mere 63 calories. If he had spent the same time jogging, he would have used 288 calories. Researchers speculate the brain releases chemicals, such as prolactin, which causes sleepiness. On the other hand, women report feeling less tired than men after an orgasm.[2]

    • A hysterectomy may affect a woman’s’ ability to have an orgasm. While the nerves that convey sensation from the clitoris are likely to remain undamaged, the nerves that convey sensation from the vagina are more likely to be damaged.[2]
    • Circumcision doesn’t seem to affect a man’s ability to have an orgasm. However, a woman whose partner has a foreskin may experience increased duration and comfort, which increases the likelihood of experiencing single and multiple orgasms.[2]
    • According to one study, clitoral piercing, or piercing of the clitoral sheath (hood or prepuce) does not negatively affect orgasm.[2]
    • Research indicates that 67% of women fake orgasm.[6]
    • Using the term “achieve” to describe an orgasm may put pressure on sexual partners to always achieve an orgasm—so, sexual health experts use the word “experience” instead.[2]
    • The record for the most female orgasms in a single masturbation session was reportedly 49 from a woman in London in 2006.[5]
    • Around 75% of women need clitoral stimulation and are unable to orgasm through intercourse alone.[6]
    • Some scientists believe that not every woman has a G-spot. The G-spot is typically believed to be located 1–2 inches up on the inside wall of the vagina. It is usually pea-sized but can grow to be the size of a walnut.[2]

  • At the moment of orgasm, certain areas of the brain shut down, including the area that process fear and “vigilance for danger.” Levels of self-control and moral reasoning also decrease.[2]
  • When a woman orgasms, her body produces four times the normal amount of oxytocin, the chemical that stimulates bonding.[4]
  • According to a University of Kansas survey in 2009, about 25% of men reported faking an orgasm.[6]
  • Almost all women who could reach orgasm before cancer treatments can do so after treatments.[2]



50 Surprising Vagina Facts

50 Surprising Vagina Facts


  • A vaginal “fart,” also called a “queef” or “vart,” is common. Unlike gas expelled from the rectum, which contains fecal waste and has an odor, vaginal flatulence is odorless and unrelated to the rectum (unless a woman has a rare rectovaginal fistula).[2]
  • Each vagina has its own smell. The smell depends on a variety of factors, including the combination of normal bacteria that live in the vagina, diet, types of fabric a woman wears, level of hygiene, how much a woman sweats, and gland secretions.[2]
  • The first inch or two of the vagina has the most nerve endings and is the most pleasure receptive.[3]
  • The speculum (Latin for “mirror”) dates back to 1300 B.C. Speculums have also been found in the ruins at Pompeii.[2]
  • The first movie to use the word “vagina” on film was the 1946 Disney animated film called “The Story of Menstruation.”[9]
  • Love and war have been historically linked
  • The word “vagina” is Latin for “sheath” or “scabbard.” The plural of vagina is vaginae or vaginas.[2]
  • One patient was so worried that she had lost something in her vagina, she used pliers to try to find it. She ended up pulling on and tearing her cervix, which required hours of surgery to repair. Most gynecologists recommend that if a woman thinks something is in her vagina, to lube up the fingers with K-Y jelly or olive oil and stick them all the way inside. If she or her partner can’t feel anything inside, chances are good that there’s nothing there. A woman should not be embarrassed to call a gynecologist for help.[5]
  • The pH (acid/base balance) of the vagina is around 4, which is the same pH as wine, tomatoes, and beer. Some things that change the pH of the vagina are vaginal infections, douching, soap, and exposure to semen.[2]
  • The largest vagina in history most likely belonged to Anna Swann (1846-1888). She was 7 feet and 5 inches tall and weighed 350 pounds. She gave birth to a 23-pound baby with a 19-inch head.[2]
  • In 2006, in the novel The Haunted Vagina, a woman’s vagina acted as a gateway to the world of the dead.[4]
  • In 2009, a healthy kidney designated for transplant was removed through the donor’s vagina at John Hopkins Medical Center. This type of surgery is considered less invasive because the kidney was removed through a natural opening. The more traditional surgery typically requires a 5-6 inch incision through the abdominal wall.[7]
  • Approximately one in 5,000-7,000 female babies are born without a vagina. Known as vaginal agenesis, the condition is sometime recognized at birth, but most of the time isn’t diagnosed until puberty.[2]
  • Researchers believe that pubic hair evolved to become either a type of sexual ornament or as a way to trap pheromones
  • Hair around the vaginal area grows only for three weeks. However, the hair on a person’s head can grow for up to seven years.[2]
  • Different vaginas have different smells at different times of the day. Right out of the shower, a vagina may not smell. After running or exercise, a vagina might smell musky from all the sweat glands. A menstruating vagina may smell like iron, and when a vagina has an overgrowth of yeast, it may smell like bread. After intercourse, a vagina may smell faintly like bleach, as semen has a smell of its own. If there is an overgrowth of bacteria, the vagina may smell like fish.[5]
  • The etymology of the word “cunt” is uncertain. Some scholars believe it derives from the Latin cuneus, “wedge,” or from the Proto-Indo-European *gwen, which is the root of “queen,” and the Greek gyne, “woman.”[5]
  • Approximately 30% of women have orgasms from vaginal intercourse. Some researchers claim that a vaginal orgasm may be a deep clitoral orgasm. Other researchers claim that vaginal and clitoral orgasms are completely different and activate different parts of the brain. The word orgasm is from the Proto-Indo-European root *wrog, meaning “to burgeon, swell with strength.”[3]
  • The vagina has over 1,000 nicknames, including “passion flower,” “pink pearl,” “ya ya,” “fish taco,” “crotch mackerel,” “cod canal,” “fish factory,” “fuzzy lap flounder,” “tuna town, “ “penis penitentiary,” “cum pocket,” “yoni,” “warehouse of warmth,” “warm slurpee,” the “V” thing,” “apple pie,” and “yum yum.”[5]
  • With over 1,000 nicknames, the vagina is one of the most obessed over body parts in history
  • In about 1 in 2,000 births, a girl is born with an imperforate hymen, which means there is no hole in the tissue to allow menses or discharge to pass through.[5]
  • Gynecologists say that there are natural ways to make a vagina smell fresher without douching, including 1) eliminate pubic hair; 2) wipe with baby wipes instead of toilet paper; 3) drink cranberry juice, which is a natural antibacterial; 4) go panty free or wear cotton panties to keep the vagina aired out; 5) take probiotics to keep vaginal flora healthy; 6) avoid panty hose and tight jeans; and 7) eat a healthy, vegetable-based diet. Foods such as coffee, asparagus, beets, alcohol, broccoli, onions, garlic, and curry can affect the smell.[5]
  • Painful sex (dyspareunia) is normal after a woman loses her virginity. But if the pain does not lessen and resolve after a while, other conditions may be involved, including vulvar vestibulitis (inflammation of the vestibule), vaginismus (involuntary contraction of the vaginal muscles), allergic reactions to things such as latex condoms or spermicide, and endometriosis (when lining from the uterus gets on the ovaries, bowel, and pelvic lining). As women age, lower levels of estrogen can cause atrophic vaginitis, or thinning of the vaginae.[2]
  • Most gynecologists believe that masturbating is healthy and normal because it is safe sex, it releases stress, it is a mood booster, and it helps build pelvic floor muscles. However, there are exceptions. For example, one woman decided to masturbate with a banana. While masturbating, she put the stem side in first and lacerated her cervix, which required a hospital visit and sticthes. If a woman puts something inside, she should stick to smooth fingers, vibrators, and dildos.[2]
  • While each woman’s vagina is different, the average length of an unaroused vagina in a mature woman is between 2.5-3.0 inches wide and 3.5 inches long. The vagina can expand up to 200% during sexual intercourse and giving birth.[2]
Why do people say "grow some balls"? Balls are weak and sensitive. If you wanna be tough, grow a vagina. Those things can take a pounding.

- Betty White

  • The hymen is named after Hymen, the Greek goddess of marriage, and is the membrane that partially covers the vagina. The hymen serves to project the vagina before puberty. After puberty and once estrogen thickens the vaginal tissue, the hymen serves little functional purpose.[2]
  • In some cultures, a woman’s clitoris is cut off, the labia removed, and the vagina sewn shut, with the exception of a tiny hole (to allow for discharge). Widely condemned as genital mutilation, this horrific practice is done because it is believed it will make a woman more marriageable by both decreasing sexual desire and to ensure virginity.[6]
  • Vagina dentate is Latin for “toothed vagina” and refers to the folktales in some cultures about women whose vaginas have teeth that can bite off a penis. Symbolically, the stories are told as a cautionary tales to discourage sexual behaviors. They can also prey on castration anxiety as well as the fear that men may be diminished by a woman. However, on rare occasions, dermoid cysts (which are cysts that can contain hair, brain, thyroid, skin, and teeth) can migrate their way to the vagina, which can cause vagina denata.[5]
  • In a condition called pelvic prolapse, a woman’s vagina can literally fall out and hang between the legs. Pelvic prolapse, however, can often be fixed.[2]
  • Some researchers believe that the G-spot (the Grafenberg spot) lies two to three inches inside the vagina, on the anterior wall (near the belly button), just under the urethra. They believe this area has a different texture than the rest of the vagina and may be a remnant prostate gland. Other researchers believe that the G-spot does not exist.[5]
  • Trichomoniasis is a vaginal infection caused by a sexually transmitted parasite. Symptoms include itching, burning, and excess discharge that is bubbly, greenish or grayish, and may smell bad. Over 3.7 million people in the United States have the disease, though only 30% have symptoms.[8]
  • Bacterial vaginosis (BV) causes the classic fishy smell in a vagina and is sometimes associated with discharge, odor, pain, itching and burning. It is the most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age. Researchers do not fully understand how a woman develops BV, but know it is associated with an imbalance of the bacteria that are normally found in a woman’s vagina. Increased risk includes having a new sex partner or multiple partners and douching. A woman cannot get BV from toilet seats, bedding, or swimming pools, and women who have never had sexual intercourse can also be affected.[8]
  • While some cultures teach that vaginas are taboo or dirty places, one doctor notes that vaginas have also been celebrated through history and that “reclaiming the power and beauty is immensely liberating. Women, and the sexual distinctions that make us women, are the most powerful creative forces in the world.” Additionally, studies show that women who are more confident about their vaginas have better orgasms.[5]
  • There are several vagina symbols, including oysters, flowers, handbags, and the vesica pisces (the “vessel of the fish” that is often used as a Christ symbol).[2]
  • The vagina is a potential space, meaning that if nothing is holding it open, it collapses, like a sock without a foot in it.[3]
  • Some companies sell heavy metal balls, such as the Ben Wa Ball, that are used to tighten vaginal muscles. The ball is simply carried around in the vagina.[2]


  • Both sharks and vaginas have a substance called squalene. Squalene exists in shark livers and is also a natural vaginal lubricant.[2]
  • The vagina begins at the opening of the vulva (from the Proto-Indo-European *wel- “to turn, to revolve,” and is related to walzan “to waltz”) and ends at the cervix (from the Latin cervix, “the neck, nape of the neck”).[1][10]
  • Inside the vagina is a series of ridges produced by folds of the vagina called the vaginal rugae. They allow the vagina to extend and stretch.[5]
  • The vagina is self-cleaning and, consequently, physicians discourage douching. The vagina has colonies of mutually symbiotic flora and microorganisms that protect against dangerous microbes. Disrupting this balance can cause yeast infections, abnormal discharge, and more.[8]
  • The vagina is not an open conduit to the abdominal cavity. While tiny, microscopic sperm can swim through the opening of the cervix, a tampon will never fit. So it is impossible to lose a tampon, condom, or anything else in a vagina.[2]
  • A 27-year-old woman in 2011 was charged with possession of heroin after 54 bags of the drug were found inside her vagina.[11]
  • While rare, it is possible for a woman to develop an allergy to the proteins in semen. This condition is known as human seminal plasma protein hypersensitivity. Most cases only involve itching and swelling after sex, but in some cases it can be life threatening. Research shows that certain women are allergic to certain men but not to others.


  • One patient came to a gynecologist complaining that vines were coming out of her vagina. The doctor examined her and found that vines were indeed coming out. When the doctor removed the object, she found that it was a potato that had sprouted vines. The patient told the doctor that her mother told her to put a potato in her vagina to prevent pregnancy.[5]
  • While vaginal discharge can help lubricate the vagina, it is different from the vaginal lubrication produced during sex. The lube comes from special, pea-sized ducts called Bartholin’s glands, which are located around the vaginal opening.[2]
  • Vaginas (like breasts, knees, and bottoms) can get saggy. Pregnancy, childbirth, age, hormonal changes, genetics, and years of gravity can weaken the supports of the female genital tract, which causes sagging. There are several ways to avoid sagging: 1) Kegel exercises, 2) maintaining a normal weight, 3) avoiding constipation, and 4) not smoking.[2]
  • Vaginal discharge does not contain any waste products. Instead it contains the following: fluid that seeps through the walls of the vagina, cervical mucus, uterine and tubal fluid, secretions from glands in the vulva, oil and sweat from vulvar glands, old cells from the walls of the vagina, and healthy bacteria. Vaginal discharge contains mostly salt water, mucus, and cells.[2]
  • The average amount of vaginal discharge a woman of reproductive age secretes over a period of eight hours weighs 1.55 grams (1 gram=¼ teaspoon). Every woman makes different amounts of vaginal discharge, though it varies depending on where a woman is in her cycle. A woman procures the greatest amount of discharge (1.96 grams) around the time of ovulation.[2]
  • While vulvas typically vary between women, most vaginas look alike.[2]
  • One gynecologist reported that a patient of hers regularly used her vagina as a purse. The woman would stuff it with a plastic baggie of pills, a wad of bills, a tube of lipstick, and a pen. The woman later admitted that she had been sexually abused as an eight-year-old.[5]
  • According to one gynecologist, the most unusual vagina she had ever seen was on a woman who had come in for labor and delivery. She actually had two vaginas, with two cervixes. One cervix was eight centimeters dilated. The other was completely closed. She had had no prenatal care, but her husband had told her for years that having sex with her was like having sex with two different women.[5]
  • When one gynecologist was asked what it was like looking at vaginas all day, she replied “Really, it’s just a bunch of different haircuts.”[5]


  • One patient visited a gynecologist complaining of vaginal itching and feeling like “something is moving around inside.” The examination revealed that there were two to three live maggots in her vagina. The gynecologists had no idea how the worms got into the vagina, but treated her with worming pills, cleaned the vagina, and told her not to put food products into her vagina. At her two-week checkup, the woman was free of maggots.[5]

10 Badass Superpowers Everybody Has

10 Badass Superpowers Everybody Has



What does it take to gain superpowers? Being bitten by a radioactive spider/turtle/chicken (or violently pecked, in the latter instance)? Emigrating from another planet and finding that the terrestrial make-up of your new gaffe gives you laser vision, the power of flight, and a peculiar predilection for wearing undergarments over your pants? Or perhaps it's the potent combination of witnessing your parents murdered to death, having oodles of cash, and an inexplicable affinity for bats?

Turns out it's none of these things. In fact, all you have to do is be yourself.

No, this isn't some mawky self-help mantra about how 'we're all superheroes on the inside.' Fact is, the vast majority of us are downright average. You can leave that triteness aside; what we mean is, we're all born with incredible innate abilities - ones we don't even realise.

Whether God-given or the result of millions of years of adaptive, scientifically-backed evolution (take your pick), the human body comes pre-loaded with a raft of special 'powers' which every day do amazing things like stop us from dying. Or even just falling over.

These are the most badass of the bunch.

10. Mammalian Diving Reflex


Think back to your earliest childhood memories. Now think before that. Keep going... do you remember when you were a sort of fish-like creature living in the oceans, millions of years ago? You do, good. That's the reason we're all pre-built with an innate diving reflex, despite exchanging the seas for shores many millennia back.

Throw any new-born baby into a wintery lake and you'll soon see it kick in (before you're apprehended by the police, anyway). The reflex is triggered as soon as your face comes into contact with cold water. Receptors in the nasal and sinus cavities are engaged, sending a signal to the brain to slow your heart rate down. As a consequence, your body needs less oxygen - meaning you can stay underwater for longer. Obviously, don't go thinking you can swim forever in the Arctic Ocean - the effect is not proportional to temperature.


9. Your Brain Turns Your Hearing Down


Here's a random one. When you shout, your brain kind of turns down your hearing so you don’t deafen yourself. Go on: try it. Even if you're in a crowded office. It's for science, after all.

According to a 2006 study, it's all down to dedicated brain cells which effectively place a muffle on your ears, dampening the auditory neurons' ability to register new sounds. As soon as you stop bawling your head off, the inhibitor switches off, and those complaints of your distracted colleagues will begin to filter back through.

Boffins poking Q-tips in the ears of crickets called this a "corollary discharge," made possible by communication between motor neurons - involved in generating a loud noise - and sensory neurons, via 'interneurons'. In nature, these corollary discharge interneurons (CDIs) not only protect animals from their own cacophony, but allow them to distinguish sounds they've created from those of possible threats.

Scientists also believe we have these CDIs for other senses, such as touch - hence why we can't tickle ourselves. Go on, try that too. And good luck finding a new job.

8. You Fight Cancer Every Day

© NCI/PHANIE/phanie/Phanie Sarl/Corbis

Cancer affects us all. No really. Scarily, our body fights against it every single day.

During cell production, mutations occur which if left can be a source of malignancy. Luckily for most, our immune system performs regular checks to filter these out and destroy them. If left alone, cancerous cells could potentially develop into tumours.

This information isn't just a cool fact: it also has important oncological implications in devising diagnostic tests to help spot cancers early.

Here's another way your body fights the disease: When you get sunburn, it's not your skin cells being damaged by the sun and dying, but your skin cells' DNA being damaged by the sun and them killing themselves so they don't turn into cancer. Give them a day off and wear lotion, folks.

7. Breast Milk Is Magical

Wikimedia Commons

Breast milk actually changes its composition to meet the individual nutritional needs of the baby(ies) feeding from the breast. For example, if mom is nursing a toddler (who is more prone to short little "drive by" nursings) the child gets more bang for their buck with a full session's worth of proteins, fats and vitamins in their one minute fly-by the same as a three month old gets in their 25 minute session.

As they get older, the quantity of vitamins, fats and proteins changes as well to meet their individual needs. This is even true if mom is tandem nursing two babies of different ages: the milk actually customizes itself to ensure they both get exactly what they need, and the amount of milk she makes is dependent entirely on how much stimulation she gets (ie. the more the baby nurses at the breast, the better supplied they are. This is why using bottles and pacifiers mucks up someone's supply: the baby wastes all their suckling needs somewhere else).

Even cooler, the milk makes antibodies for the viruses mom and baby are exposed to and fighting off. It's like a built-in vaccine that is constantly being updated against the latest bugs. This is the main reason why breastfed babies are better equipped to combat both short term illness and long term disease (like respiratory illness, asthma, allergies, etc).

And it comes in a real pretty container, too.

6. Your Fingertips Can Detect Microscopic Objects


Turns out we all have the magic touch: scientists in Sweden found that people can detect nano-scale wrinkles while running their fingers upon a seemingly smooth surface.

The study marks the first time that scientists have quantified how people feel, in terms of a physical property. One of the authors, Professor of Surface Chemistry Mark Rutland, said that the human finger can discriminate between surfaces patterned with ridges as small as 13 nanometres in amplitude and non-patterned surfaces.

"This means that, if your finger was the size of the Earth, you could feel the difference between houses from cars," he said.

When a finger is drawn over a surface, vibrations occur in the finger. People feel these vibrations differently on different structures. The friction properties of the surface control how hard we press on the surface as we explore it. A high friction surface requires us to press less to achieve the optimum friction force.

Well, so what? According to Rutland, the discovery allows us to actually design how things feel. So your phone's touch screen could be altered with vibrations to feel like wood, wool, or... well, who knows where dating apps might take it. We could also make a shampoo that changes the feeling of your hair, of if you're bald, makes it feel like you have hair! If only...

5. Body Renewal

20th Century Fox

The idea that the body entirely renews itself every seven years sounds really too good to be true. That's because it is. But that isn't to say we don't have any regenerative powers - they're just not quite on Wolverine's level.

Approximately 50,000 cells in your body will die and be replaced with new cells during the time it takes you to read this sentence. We make a new skeleton every three months and a new layer of skin every month.

What's more, you can lose up to 75% of your liver and it can grow back to its full size, kind of like how a lizard can re-grow its tail, only we manage it with an extremely complex organ. Even more incredibly, if you were to donate part of it to someone else, the transplanted organ would grow into a full liver as well. It's really the gift that keeps on giving - but one quite difficult to wrap.

4. Glow


It isn't just pregnant women who have that special glow: apparently, we all do. Humans are bioluminescent, which means we all glow in the dark like star stickers on a kid's bedroom ceiling.

Unless you have rabbit-like vision, you're unlikely to have noticed it; the light we emit is 1000 weaker than that which human eyes can detect. And it's not just us; seemingly all animals do it, thought to be a byproduct of biochemical reactions involving free radicals.

Japanese researchers discovered that volunteers' bodies tended to glow most strongly at 4pm, and most faintly at 10am, suggesting our circadian rhythm - the body-clock - is a factor in how brightly we shine.

It may not be as extravagant as certain light-up creatures at the bottom of the ocean, and won't draw any eyes during a black light disco, but isn't it heartening to know we all shine?

3. Baby Brain Growth

Flickr, @freezelight

During the first month of life, an infant is learning so many new things that the number of connections, called synapses, between brain cells increases from 50 trillion to 1 quadrillion. By comparison, if the rest of the infant's body responded with equally rapid growth, it'd weigh 170 pounds by the time it was was a month old.

Researchers discovered that baby's brains expanded by a staggering 64% within their first 90 days post-vagitus, which is to say from 33% the size of an adult brain to 55% the size in just three months. That's a heck of a lot going on when it looks like they're just lying there gurgling.

It was also found that the brains of premature babies grew at a faster rate than those born full-term, meaning the 'age' of the infant is inversely proportional the rate of cerebral expansion. Furthermore, different parts of the brain developed at different speeds. The cerebellum - principle for movement - grew the quickest, whilst the hippocampus, mostly involved with creating memories, grew slowest. This explains why babies spend lots of time kicking around randomly, but none of them can ever remember doing so.

2. Your Kidneys Taste Your Pee

By Katarighe. [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

You don't just keep taste receptors in your mouth, you know. The specialized cells that help you detect what is ice cream and what is poison can actually be found all over the body.

These cells have been discovered in places such as your heart, spine, blood and even your kidneys. Let's just take a moment to be thankful for the fact that we don't actually experience the taste our kidneys sense in that same way that we do in our mouth, considering that our kidneys are mostly tasting our pee.

Each kidney contains around a million filters with around 1.3 litres of blood pushed through them every minute, and they can produce around 1.5 litres of urine in a day. Every single drop of this pee has to by 'tasted' by the kidneys to find out its chemical makeup and keep the rest of the body in balance.

It is thought that these taste and smell receptors all around the body are there to detect everything that goes in, out and around your system, sending signals to the brain to make adjustments as needed. These adjustments could either be "spit that out, it's poison" or "drink more water, the kidneys are telling me you're thirsty" (or "bleurgh, I'm so sick of tasting pee").


1. Standing Up Straight


It might seem as simple as falling off a log, but just standing still is actually a pretty tricky thing to do.

Just to stand on two legs requires the use of over 300 muscles that are constantly making tiny adjustments to keep you upright. Even when you're stood to attention, you're never really stood completely still.

The body actually constantly rocks backwards and forwards as it makes corrections and keeps its balance. Your weight is continually shifting from one leg to the other and different muscles twitch, relax and contract - all without you even thinking about it.

No wonder you get tired if you stand up for too long - it's hard work.

Perhaps the biggest unsung hero of the body, and its incredible ability to stand on two legs, is the big toe.

Despite the fact that you usually never give it a second thought until you bang it on a bit of furniture, the big toe is absolutely vital for retaining balance and propelling the body forwards when we walk. Without it, we'd be keeling over all over the place like badly design action figures.

Synthetic Biology: How Our World Will Look Like When We Master DNA Editing

Synthetic Biology: How Our World Will Look Like When We Master DNA Editing

This is a visual essay exploring the future technology of synthetic biology.
In recent years there have been major breakthroughs in DNA editing. Making
it inexpensive and precise to modify and or combine living organisms to our
design specifications. Through the combination of organic and mechanical
archetypes into new forms, we wanted to stir the imagination of designers and
engineers. The goal of this project is to spread synthetic biology into the sci-fi
communities. To help us visualize the design and engineering possibilities that
this technology can bring to us in the future.


European Rivers Are So Polluted That Eels Are Getting High On Cocaine

European Rivers Are So Polluted That Eels Are Getting High On Cocaine

The drug epidemic has been plaguing the world for decades. There’s no stopping it. We can merely slow it down. Now, however, it’s not only affecting our Nintendo, but our wild life. So much so that native eels are getting high on cocaine because of all the illegal drug residue in the water.

True story. According to National Geographic, rivers in Europe are so polluted, endangered eels are being threatened even further because of the how they’re reacting to the drug exposure:

“Data show a great presence of illicit drugs and their metabolites in surface waters worldwide,” says Anna Capaldo, a research biologist at the University of Naples Federico II and the lead author of the study. She adds that water near densely populated cities is even worse, with some research showing particularly high concentrations in the Thames River near London’s Houses of Parliament and in the Italian Amo River near Pisa of leaning tower fame.

The article goes on to cite a laundry list of issues:

-The drug accumulates in the brain, muscles, gills and skin, causing swelling and breakdown of tissue.

-It screws up the hormones that regulate their physiology and migration instincts.

-The increased dopamine levels could prevent them from reaching sexual maturity.

-It doesn’t help that the eels are particularly vulnerable, especially in their early lives.

The next thing you should be asking yourself is, “and humans put this into their body, why?!”

Traces of drugs — and other pollutants — in the water could be effecting other species, too. This has scientists more than a little worried. Aside from laying off the cocaine (and other drugs), more efficient wastewater treatment is needed.

There’s a million reasons to stay away from drugs. Who knew protecting your friendly European eel was one of them?

Why Can't We Just Kill Off Invasive Species?

Why Can't We Just Kill Off Invasive Species?

Invasive species destroying ecosystems are a huge problem, but there’s hope that we can help mitigate the damage.

Why Do You Feel Butterflies In Your Stomach?

Why Do You Feel Butterflies In Your Stomach?

It may have happened when you locked eyes with your secret crush, or before an important job interview, but what exactly caused that strange, fluttering sensation in your stomach?

10 Animals That Have Figured Out Their Own Life Hacks

10 Animals That Have Figured Out Their Own Life Hacks -




10 Animals That Have Figured Out Their Own Life Hacks


Although we may not have flying cars or Mars colonies yet, we definitely have some wild technology to help us with everyday stuff. We have phones and transportation and indoor plumbing, all things that would have blown our Founding Fathers’ minds.

Like us, our animal buddies have figured out ways to make their lives just a little easier. From cleaning to sleeping, here are 10 animals who can do things just a little better than us.


10 Crocodile Diving Hack

Photo credit: animals.mom.me

While we humans rely on submarines or scuba gear to get us to the depths of the ocean, crocodiles have figured out a much simpler way to do it. When these bad boys need to get to the ocean floor to catch dinner, they simply eat a few stones.

By swallowing big stones and rocks, they can increase their body weight and sink down to snag much bigger meals. This helps them with their deep-sea diving, their swimming abilities, and their digestion problems.[1]

The rocks line up in the crocodile’s stomach and grate the food to help break down any of the tougher-shelled prey that the crocodile eats. The extra weight from the stones also allows the crocs to travel farther down in the water for bigger, tastier prey.

9 Rhino Cleaning Hack

No need for showers or brushes. Rhinos have found a method to get another animal to do the work for them.

In the African savanna, rhinos become hosts for a lot of ticks, which cause problems with their sensitive skin. This is where the oxpeckers come in. These birds will perch on the rhinos’ backs and eat all the ticks as part of the birds’ blood-based diet.

Oxpeckers also act as useful safety tools or alarm systems.[2] Rhinos are shortsighted and often cannot see when predators are drawing near. However, the birds have a good view from a rhino’s back and emit a distress call to let the rhino know that something is coming. Not that the oxpecker is worried about the rhino, it just doesn’t want another animal to eat its ticks.


8 Chiton Dental Hack

Photo credit: newscientist.com

There is one animal in particular that beats our modern dental industry. The chiton, a marine mollusk that lives in the Gulf of Mexico, has the ability to grow the hardest teeth in the world.

These teeth are made out of magnetite, the hardest material produced by any organism, and are perfect for munching on the animal’s favorite algae snacks.

Scientists believe that humans will eventually be able to harness the power of the proteins that form the chitons’ teeth to “synthesize tough materials in labs.”[3] But for now, we can just marvel at their beautiful chompers.

7 Stick Insect Birth Hack

One animal that doesn’t need a man is the female stick insect. They are able to give birth through parthenogenesis, a method of procreation that doesn’t involve a mate. It is sometimes referred to as a “virgin birth.”

If well-fed, a female stick insect is able to lay unfertilized eggs all on her own, no mate required. Some scientists have reproduced this phenomenon in their own labs in hopes of applying this knowledge to human reproduction.[4]

But this asexual reproduction goes deeper for the insects. They really just don’t want to mate at all. In fact, female stick insects are so opposed to getting in the sack that they have developed an anti-aphrodisiac chemical which they can spray at any randy male to diminish the temptation.

6 Salmon Navigation Hack

Photo credit: Scientific American

As much as we love to use Google Maps, salmon have figured out an even better way to get around town. These fish are born with the ability to sense variations in the Earth’s magnetic field. This skill allows them to navigate from fresh water to salt water so that they can eat and reproduce.[5]

Salmon are born in fresh water, travel to salt water, and then return to the stream where they were born to give birth. Other than their sense of magnetism, salmon use their sense of smell to navigate. The fish can recognize the smell of their birth stream, which helps them to find their way back home.


5 Black Swallower Eating Hack

Photo credit: wanderlord.com

You know the saying “My eyes are bigger than my stomach”? Well, that doesn’t apply to the black swallower. At only 10 centimeters (4 in) long, these deep-sea swimmers may appear small, but they can eat prey more than two times their length and 10 times their mass.

Native to the waters of North America, black swallowers live as far as 3,000 meters (10,000 ft) below the ocean surface and run into a lot of large predators that would love nothing more than to get their grub on. Little do their predators know, the black swallowers are the ones that are going to eat dinner.

These little fish are equipped with razor-sharp teeth that can take their enemies down in one gulp. Due to the black swallower’s extending stomach, it can devour much bigger predators with just one bite.[6]

The black swallower’s stomach can stretch so far that the skin becomes transparent. Any prey that comes along may think that it’s going to have an easy snack, but it will soon find out that it probably shouldn’t have picked on the little guy.

4 Plumed Basilisk Walking Hack

The plumed basilisk has mastered a hack that only one famous being has ever been said to do: walk on water. Nicknamed the Jesus Christ lizard, this critter can use its little toes to cross bodies of water.

Plumed basilisks make their homes in the trees that you can find lining a body of water. When predators, such as birds, come down to eat them, the lizards will simply drop to the water below and run to safety.

The toes on their rear feet have skin-like scales. These expand when hitting liquid to increase the surface area of each foot that contacts the water. By quickly moving their toes, the lizards can create air pockets on the surface of the water that keep them from sinking.[7]

3 Dolphin Sleeping Hack

Have you ever needed to stay awake to study for a big exam but just couldn’t keep your eyes open? Well, dolphins don’t need to worry about that. These marine mammals can stay awake for 15 days at a time by sleeping with half of their brain.

Known as unihemispheric sleep, this phenomenon allows the dolphins to rest while staying alert to the never-ending risk of shark attacks. This trick also keeps dolphins from drowning. A full brain sleep in the ocean would put them in danger of dying because their breathing is a conscious function.

By keeping half of its brain asleep, a dolphin can rest but still go to the surface for air when needed.[8]

2 Frog Defense Hack

Photo credit: Gustavocarra

The Trichobatrachus robustus (aka the “hairy frog” due to the hairlike fibers found on the male’s skin) has the gross ability to break its own bones to fight off prey. When under attack, these frogs will quickly contract their muscles, snap the bones in their hind feet, and push the bones out of their skin to create protruding claws.

Due to the formation of collagen in the frog’s toe bones, it is possible for these creatures to break the tips of their toes and not their whole legs. This strange form of defense allows the hairy frogs to both fight off and completely terrify their prey.

It can be used against humans, too. In Cameroon, the frogs are hunted for food by the indigenous people. To avoid getting hurt by these froggy weapons, the hunters have to use long spears to catch these creatures.[9]

1 Millipede Poison Hack

Another method of attack in the animal kingdom involves the production of hydrogen cyanide in dragon millipedes.

Despite their hundreds of legs, millipedes aren’t the best at outrunning their predators. In their natural habitats, millipedes have to worry about becoming food for a variety of other animals, including ants, amphibians, beetles, birds, mammals, reptiles, slugs, and spiders.

With danger around every corner, these leggy creatures have their own hack to ward off enemies. When attacked, dragon millipedes can either secrete a deadly form of hydrogen cyanide from their pores or spray their attackers from up to 50 centimeters (20 in) away.[10]

The predators are no match for the cyanide as the millipede’s form of the chemical is 18 times the lethal dose for a common pigeon. A good spray will give their predators a nasty shock when they go in for a bite.

Scientists Just Created A Human-Chicken Embryo

Scientists Just Created A Human-Chicken Embryo


A group of scientists have successfully created a human-chicken embryo, a scientific feat previously made impossible because of strict ethical laws.

But by inventing a new technique to graft human embryonic stem cells into a chicken embryo, researchers at New York City's Rockefeller University were able to create the world's first human-chicken hybrid that bypasses regulation.

The researchers believe this could bring advances in human developmental medicine and pave the way for better methods in preventing birth defects and miscarriages.

What Are Organizer Cells?

When a clump of cells come together to form an embryo, it decides its future fate with what scientists call organizer cells. These cells, first discovered in 1924 in salamanders and have since been observed in other animals, direct the formation of the animal. In other words, these cells are responsible for organizing the formation of limbs, organs, and other body parts.

Up until now, scientists have not been able to find organizer cells in humans. Governments around the world have imposed an ethical ban on experimenting with human embryos after its 14th day. This is around the time organizer cells would appear in a natural pregnancy.

"No one knew what happens after the ball of cells attaches itself to the uterus," says stem cell biologist and lead researcher Ali Brivanlou.

How A Human-Chicken Embryo Was Formed

By using human embryonic stem cells, Brivanlou and his team circumvented the 14-day ban and created a new structure akin to a human embryo. The team cultured the stem cells, which could turn into any of the specialized cells, on small squares that forced them to come together instead of spreading apart.

They also exposed the cells to two proteins, causing them to form layers similar to a human embryo. Later testing showed the cells expressed genes also found in the organizer cells of other animals.

The team went on to graft the embryonic cells into a chicken embryo, which was taken from the egg at the 12-hour mark, a point similar to the 14-day point in human embryos. The result that followed was astonishing.

Hello, Human-Chicken Hybrid

It's not easy grafting human cells into other species. The team, for instance, had previously tried and failed to create a human-mouse hybrid embryo. However, their latest feat shows humans and birds may not be as evolutionary different as were once thought.

As soon as the human cells were transplanted, organizer cells immediately began directing the embryo to form a secondary spinal column and nervous system that were made entirely of chicken cells. Brivanlou says this is a clear indication that human organizers do exist.

"To my amazement, the graft not only survived, but actually gave rise to these beautifully organized structures," he says.

He also believes that the ability of human cells to organize new structures in a chicken, which is more closely related to dinosaurs than humans, is proof that animal cells' ability to create their destiny have survived hundreds of millions of years.

What Are The Medical Implications?

By understanding how stem cells can organize and generate various body parts, researchers could break ground into new avenues in regenerative medicine, where stem cells are used to heal damaged tissue or even generate new organs.

The study also provides a groundbreaking look into the early stages of human development. By opening up new insight about how cells form and organize into body parts, scientists can come up with new methods and techniques to prevent birth defects and miscarriages, as well as other diseases such as cancer and diabetes.

Biology Of Giants

Biology Of Giants

Because I'm a massive fan of Game of Thrones, today we discuss some speculative evolution and speculative biology by taking an in-depth look at if humanoid Giants could exist. In this video will talk about the bio-mechanics, adaptions, and evolution of giant organisms and in doing so try to get the most scientifically accurate image of giants I can. Hope you enjoy!

The Real Reason Peppers Are Spicy

The Real Reason Peppers Are Spicy


Red Peppers on the wooden table

We used to believe peppers were spicy to deter mammals from eating them, but it turns out that's not the case.

The Astounding Science Of Pacemakers

The Astounding Science Of Pacemakers

These small devices have become so commonplace that it's easy to forget that they are a technological marvel.

The Science Of Why You're Such A Sweaty Bastard

The Science Of Why You're Such A Sweaty Bastard

There's a host of clever evolutionary reasons behind this (occasionally embarrassing) physical phenomenon.

The Deadliest Being On Planet Earth – The Bacteriophage

The Deadliest Being On Planet Earth – The Bacteriophage


A war has been raging for billions of years, killing trillions every single day, while we don’t even notice. This war involves the single deadliest being on our planet: The Bacteriophage.

Yale Experiment To Reanimate Dead Brains Promises 'Living Hell' For Humans

Yale Experiment To Reanimate Dead Brains Promises 'Living Hell' For Humans

A scientific experiment to reanimate dead brains could lead to humans enduring a ‘fate worse than death,’ an ethics lecturer has warned.

Last month Yale University announced it had successfully resurrected the brains of more than 100 slaughtered pigs and found that the cells were still healthy.

The reanimated brains were kept alive for up to 36 hours and scientists said the process, which should also work in primates, offered a new way to study intact organs in the lab.

Although the pigs did not regain consciousness, the team admitted that it may be possible to restore awareness, and the experiments open the door to the prospect of human brains being kept alive outside of the body.

However, Nottingham Trent ethics and philosophy lecturer Benjamin Curtis said it could lead to humans enduring a "living hell".

“Even if your conscious brain were kept alive after your body had died, you would have to spend the foreseeable future as a disembodied brain in a bucket, locked away inside your own mind without access to the sense that allow us to experience and interact with the world,” he told The Conversation. “In the best case scenario you would be spending your life with only your own thoughts for company.

7 remarkable facts

  • The human brain takes nearly 20 years to mature
  • In the womb, humans grow 8,000 new brain cells every second
  • By the time humans are born they have all the brain cells they will ever need
  • New-born babies can recognise their mother’s face after just a few hours
  • Babies can see in the womb but only in black and white. However, their eyes are sensitive enough to detect the dim light passing through their mother’s belly
  • Each brain cell will make, on average, 10,000 connections with other brain cells
  • Learning to balance and co-ordinate your body is so complex the area of the brain devoted to this task contains as many cells as the rest of the brain put together


“Some have argued that even with a fully functional body, immortality would be tedious. With absolutely no contact to external reality it might just be a living hell.

“To end up a disembodied human brain may well be to suffer a fate worse than death.”

How the experiment was conducted

The pig research was presented at a National Institutes of Health meeting by Yale University neuroscientist Nenad Sestan who said he had reanimated the ‘dead’ brain cells using a system of pumps, heaters, and bags of artificial blood warmed to body temperature.

In his presentation to NIH officials and ethics experts, Prof Sestan said the technique should work in any species, including primates - such as humans. “This is probably not unique to pigs,” he said.

The researchers, who are seeking NIH funding said they hoped to construct a comprehensive atlas of connections between human brain cells.

Prof Sestan said it was conceivable that the brains could be kept alive indefinitely and that steps could be attempted to restore awareness although he said his team had not attempted either because it was ‘uncharted territory’ ethically. He warned that someone could take the technology and improve it to restore a human being.


Will Humans Ever Be Able To Hibernate?

Will Humans Ever Be Able To Hibernate?

To get to the crux of this issue, we first need to understand the difference between hibernation and normal sleep.

5 Lifestyle Habits Have 'Huge Effect' On Longevity

5 Lifestyle Habits Have 'Huge Effect' On Longevity

Harvard researchers say five things will help you live longer, and the list isn't all that surprising: exercise, eat a healthy diet, maintain a healthy body weight, don't drink too much, and don't smoke. More surprising is just how much of an effect those five combined factors have on longevity—an extra 14 years for women and 12 for men, according to the study in Circulation. Researchers looked at about 30 years of data on more than 78,000 women and 44,000 men and found that those who were five-for-five on the aforementioned list had a significantly better life expectancy at age 50 than those who didn't abide by any of the healthy habits. For women, it meant an additional 43 years for the healthiest group, compared to 29 years. For men, it meant an additional 37.6 years, compared to 25.5 years.

“When we embarked on this study, I thought, of course, that people who adopted these habits would live longer," says co-author Meir Stampfer, per the Guardian. "But the surprising thing was how huge the effect was." The two big factors: Those with the healthiest lifestyles were less likely to get cancer or heart disease, notes CNN. The Harvard Gazette provides some specifics: Researchers defined regular exercise as 30 minutes or more per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity; moderate drinking is roughly one 5-ounce glass of wine per day for women and up to two for men; and the target body-mass index is between 18.5 and 24.9. Scientists say they undertook the study to better understand why the US has a shorter life expectancy.


Why A Fecal Transplant Could Save Your Life

Why A Fecal Transplant Could Save Your Life

The fecal transplant, also known as trans-poo-sion, surely has the title of medicine's most disgusting procedure.

It is pretty much what you are imagining - part of a fecal stool is taken from one person and given to another.

The purpose is to introduce new beneficial microbes to the receiving patient's digestive system.

And it can be life-saving.

It shows just how important microbes, which colonise nearly every surface of our body, are to our health.

The gut is an exceptionally rich world with many different species of micro-organisms interacting with each other and our human tissue.

Down in the dark, oxygen-deprived depths of your bowels is an ecosystem as rich as a rainforest or coral reef.

But a bacterium called Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) can take over and dominate the bowels.

It is an opportunist and normally takes hold after patients have been treated with antibiotics.

Antibiotic drugs are one of the miracles of the modern age, but they kill good and bad bacteria alike.

They are like a forest fire burning through the gut's microbiome - the collected micro-organisms living down there - leaving behind a scorched microbial earth on which C. difficile flourishes.

  • You are more microbe than human - if you count all the cells in your body, only 43% are human
  • The rest is our microbiome and includes bacteria, viruses, fungi and single-celled archaea
  • The human genome - the full set of genetic instructions for a human being - is made up of 20,000 instructions called genes
  • But add all the genes in our microbiome together and the figure comes out at between two million and 20 million microbial genes and is known as the second genome

Performing the transplant

The problem with C. difficile is that patients will have multiple bouts of watery and even bloody diarrhoea every day, tummy cramps, fever and in the most severe cases the infection is fatal.

The best that medicine has to offer is more antibiotics; it is the definition of a vicious circle.

A stool transplant - or to give it its full title "a fecal microbiota transplant" - aims to repopulate the patient's gut with the microbes from a healthy person.

A relative is often used as they would have had similar gut bacteria.

After a "sample" is produced, it is mixed with water.

Some techniques break the poo up by hand while others blitz it in a household blender.

There are two routes for getting the sample into the required location - down through the mouth or up through the rectum.

Dr Janet Jansson, a microbial ecologist from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Washington State in the US, was part of the team trying to prove trans-poo-sion works.

The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had had chronic diarrhoea for around eight months and had lost 27kg in weight.

"It was really a desperate plea for some kind of solution, she was at risk of dying from this C. difficile infection, all of the antibiotics were ineffective," said Dr Jansson.

A sample of healthy stool was transplanted from her husband.

Dr Jansson told the BBC she was very surprised at its success.

"Amazingly two days after that she was able to have normal stools, normal bowel movements, she was basically cured," she said.

"As a microbial ecologist, this is very unusual.

"We saw she went from a very diseased state, when you look at the microbial species, to a healthy microbiome that was very similar to her husband's," Dr Jansson added.


Trials have suggested the procedure is around 90% effective.

The excitement in the field has led to some people even performing their own DIY fecal transplants with groups like OpenBiome in the US - essentially a public stool bank - being set up.


But will trans-poo-sions mean anything for medicine beyond C. difficile?

The interaction between our human and microbial selves is being investigated in nearly every disease you can think of.

The microbiome has been linked to diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, Parkinson's, whether cancer drugs work and even depression and autism.

But this means there could be unintended consequences of a fecal transplant.

There was a report in 2015 of a woman gaining 36lb (16kg) and being classed as obese after a transplant from her daughter.

It is possible to make mice thinner or fatter by transplanting into them the microbiome from either a lean or obese human, although the jury is still out on whether the same rules apply in people.

There is also the more obvious risk of transferring dangerous disease-causing microbes.

It is why scientists are trying to move on from donating faeces to donating cocktails of bacteria.

Dr Trevor Lawley, from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, said future treatments had to be more refined and targeted.

"Faeces is an undefined community, and when you develop a drug first and foremost you have to consider the safety of the patient," he said.

"We have an idea of what bugs to put in now, so if you have a defined mixture that's proven safe, we can overcome that."

And that is likely to be the future of microbial medicine - knowing what is the problem in an individual patient's microbiome and being able to address that.

Why Cryonics Are Not As Far-Fetched As You Think

Why Cryonics Are Not As Far-Fetched As You Think

Though we have yet to freeze a person and bring them back to life, the concept is actually plausible.


10 Ways Technology Could Affect Evolution

10 Ways Technology Could Affect Evolution

human brain

Technology is advancing at such a rate that it seems almost inevitable that is will affect our biology. Here are 10 ways that technology could affect our evolution!

Could You Upload Your Mind Into A Computer?

Could You Upload Your Mind Into A Computer?

Biology meets computer science meets philosophy! Following a discussion between Antonio Damasio and Aubrey de Grey I was inspired to talk about minds and brains, computers, artificial intelligence, and technology!



1. 100 million people have sex each night
In case you are wondering the number of people having sex each night all over the world, it has been claimed that it has gone way over a hundred million.

2. The average age of losing virginity
When it comes to the average age of losing virginity, the male folks lose it an average of 16.9 and the female counterparts lose it at a slightly older age which averages at 17.4.

3. Rate of Orgasm
Women have less orgasm than men. While men 75 percent of men always have an orgasm, only 27 percent of women get the highness always.

4. Sex is always better with someone you love
Have you heard of people having sex with inanimate objects? Well, I don’t know what to say about that, but a study has found out that when one has sex with someone one is in love with, the exercise is always much better.

5. How many sex partners have you had?
A study that looked at individuals of 20 to 59 years old showed that while most men have up to 7 sexual partners in their lifetime, most women only have four.

6. Average kissing time
Unlike what was obtainable long before now, as it stands, 74% of women have sex before marriage either once or a multiple numbers of times.

7. Sex and stress
Unlike most other things you will take, sex can reduce stress and refresh one.

8. Do you exercise?
Well, the post-gym period is seen as the best time for you to have some sex. This is because with the vibe gotten, your testosterone will, in fact, be high.

9. Sex Addiction Statistics
Even though sexual addiction is something that is very hard to come by, there are as much as between 18 million – 24 million people in the United States that are suffering from sexual addiction.

10. Those most likely to have an addiction
Sex addiction is most popularly associated with people who are suffering from Bipolar Disorder these people are more likely to engage in very risky sexual activities.

11. Guys also Fake orgasm
Even though this is not popular, as much as 31 percent of guys have been found to have faked orgasm during sex. Why men force it is to stop their partners from thinking anything’s wrong with either side.

12. Sex is better with Socks on
I don’t know how this is, or even what the link is, but a research has reported that having your socks on when having sex is really great, most especially for people having a problem enjoying sex.

13. During period is a great time
It has always been considered a taboo for a man to have sex with a woman who is in her period. Things have somehow changed, as it is revealed that the menstrual cycle time is among the best for a woman to have it great.

14. Size of testicles and fidelity
Even though women are said to most times prefer men with larger sex organs, it may be wiser for them to go for men with smaller testicles. This is because a research finding has revealed that the larger the balls, the more the possibility of straying.

15. Dangerous Sex Fetishes
There are people that only get pleasure when the sex is rough, violent, or it leaves them with some kind of pains or even infliction. In fact, there are those that get pleasure from the use of fire during sex (Pyrophilia).

16. Things that bring pleasure to people
There are a lot of things that bring sexual gratification to people. Some include people that get pleasure from a statue and inanimate objects, pleasure from dolls and teddies, sexual arousal through machines, and those that get pleasure from people that are deformed or ugly, or even monstrous.

17. Why people get stuck (penis captivus)
Most times in different places in Africa, a man getting stuck in another woman, most especially when both or one of them is married, is associated with voodoo. Nevertheless, doctors have claimed that the cause of this could vary with things such as caused by a vaginal spasm.

18. Penis captivus
Even though men keep getting stuck into women in some African countries, science says you are more likely to win a lottery than to be caught up.

19. Ancient Egyptian Contraceptives
In ancient Egypt, in order to prevent a woman from getting pregnant, a mixture of crocodile dung, honey, and sodium carbonate is prepared and inserted in the woman’s private part so as to stop or even kill the sperm.

20. People that shave their pubic regions are more likely to transmit STDs
Although it has been claimed that there are many bacteria in the human hair, when it comes to sex, it is seen that those who shave their pubes are likelier to transmit STDs to their partners than people who do not. So also, it is easier for you to give to your partner is you shave yours.

21. Anal sex crime
There was a time in England when Anal sex was considered to be a very serious crime. That was between 1533 and 1861 and those guilty were sentenced to death. What this means is that for more than 300 years people were killed in England and Wales for anal sex. In the same light, oral sex used to be a crime in Canada until 1969.

22 Women have more sex than guys
So you have always believed that men have more sex than women. Surprisingly enough, women get laid 17% more than the average man.

23. How women get an orgasm
While sex is enough for a man to get orgasm women need clitoral stimulation to reach climax instead just vaginal intercourse.

24. Women and sex before marriage
Unlike what was obtainable long before now, as it stands, 74% of women have sex before marriage either once or a multiple number of times.

25. Masturbation among women
Among women who fall between 18 to 59 year old, only 37.8% masturbate monthly while for those over 70, only 11.5 percent report doing it.

26. Sex and Memory
Sex has been found to greatly improve the cognitive abilities of women. According to a study, the memory function in healthy young women is greatly improved by penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI).

27. Apples are great as aphrodisiacs
There are a lot of things that have been associated with woman’s pleasure, but Apple has been found to be one of the best. For young women that consume at least one or two a day, she will definitely have an enjoyable sex life.

28. Orgasm in women
With masturbation, women can have an orgasm in only 4 minutes. When it comes to sex, however, this may take as much as 20 minutes before she can get that.

29. Nipple Orgasm
You have probably never heard of this, but women can get an orgasm from nipple stimulation.

30. Virgin Birth in the US
In the United States, as much as 1 percent of mums are claiming virgin births. Yes, it means just what you are suspecting; they are claiming that no one has slept with them and they just became pregnant on their own without having sex.

31. Masturbation among men
Over 60 percent of men of 18 to 59 years masturbate each month. And 27.9 percent of those over the age of 70 masturbate monthly.

32. Sperm is fast
It doesn’t matter whether a man is fast or slow in releasing, science has shown that the sperm which may be seen as ‘lazy’ outside the body, is actually very fast once it is in a woman. It is said to travel at 28 mph.

33 Amount of ejaculate a man can produce in his lifetime
In a lifetime, a man an ejaculate enough to fill the tank of a 993 Plymouth Duster. In case you are unable to figure that out, which will only be normal, that is 14 gallons in a lifetime.

34. Penile Fracture
Although as you must have heard the penis is not bones but muscle, it can actually have a fracture. That happens when it is erect and you are using it wrong. When this happens, it can be corrected through surgery.

35. Fat men have more sexual endurance
Forget about the six packs, when it comes to sex, science claims that men that are fat have more endurance than those who are without fats. These men take from 90 seconds more time than their counterparts to even double or more of it.

36. Animals Watching Humans
With between 100 million and 200 million people engaging in sex each day, as much as 60 million dogs are always watching while it is being done.

37. How dogs think about sex
Even though you may subject this to a lot of questioning, I will still drop it. It has been said that female dogs think about sex only 5 times a day. Their male counterparts, on the other hand, think about it as much as 1,000 times.

38. Female penguins engage in a form of prostitution
It is popular with penguins to have their partners. However, the female penguins can sometimes go on to sleep around with different other male penguins for a favor of getting pebbles that she would use in building nest for her babies.

39. Chimpanzee porn is able to arouse women
Ermm… Let’s get this done with. Science has revealed that women who watch chimpanzee porn are easily aroused by it. What makes this even more interesting is that it is able to get them lubricated.

40. Bonobos and sex
Probably you have not seen these apes which are regarded as “pygmy chimpanzees”, before now. That is understandable because they are not found in the Zoos. The reason behind this is very simple; they spend most of their time having sex. Because of this, they are hardly seen and they are not good when it comes to fighting. Love not fight, seems to be their motto.

41. People die suddenly during sex:
As much as 50,000 people are said to die each year during sex. Different things have been associated to this including heart attack, even though that is very rare. Some popular people that are said to have died while having sex include Félix Faure, Kristian Digby, Pope John XII, and if the unlikely rumors are true, Franklin D. Roosevelt.

42. Men Starve themselves of air during masturbation
In order to get greater pleasure, men have found a way of starving themselves of air while masturbating and it has caused the death of many people including very prominent people and celebrities.

43. 12% of adults have had sex at work
Forget about Mr. Clinton, there are many adults, by more than 10% that have one or more in the offices. While that is so, over 50% of workers are said to have sex with their colleagues in the United States.

44. Male testosterone levels and sperm counts
Compared to what was obtained many years ago, the testosterone of men and their sperm count has gone down massively. What is more is that it is on a steady decline that in years to come, it will be very hard for many men to have children.

45. DNA information in a single sperm
There is as much as  37.5 MB worth of data in a single sperm. What this means is that for an ejaculation, the amount of data you get is 1,500 terabytes.

How Long Can You Be Healthy?

How Long Can You Be Healthy?

How Long Can You Live and Be Healthy For? Learn why scientists studying aging are shifting the focus away from lifespan to healthspan.

10 Surprising Things That Impair Your Intelligence

10 Surprising Things That Impair Your Intelligence -


Certain activities are known to lower our cognitive abilities. No one is going to score their best on an intelligence test after a few shots of tequila or hits from a bong. Slamming your head repeatedly against a wall is not expected to improve thought processing, either.

But there are also some lesser-known factors that decrease brainpower. Some of these activities only impair intelligence temporarily, while others have been proven to have long-term effects.

10 Dim Lighting

Photo credit: neurosciencenews.com

Researchers at Michigan State University have discovered a link between dim lighting and a diminished ability to remember and learn.

Scientists studied the brains of a group of Nile grass rats. Like humans, Nile grass rats are active during the day and sleep at night. At the beginning of the study, the rats were trained to find their way through a maze. Then they were split into two groups, with half of the rats being exposed to bright light during the day and the other half being exposed to dim lighting.

After four weeks, the rats exposed only to dim lighting had lost 30 percent of capacity in the hippocampus, which is crucial to learning and memory. In addition, all the rats were reintroduced to the maze on which they had previously trained. The rats exposed to dim lighting performed worse than they had originally, while the rats exposed to bright light showed significant improvement.[1]

The dim lighting used in the study is similar to typical indoor lighting found in most home and office settings.

9 Smartphones

Photo credit: cnet.com

Smartphones keep us in constant contact. As a result, our cognitive abilities suffer.

Researchers at the University of Texas studied a group of approximately 800 smartphone users. Participants were asked to take a series of computer tests that required their full attention. Some were asked to leave their phones in another room, while others were simply asked to mute their devices and place them facedown on their desks. Those who left their phones in another room performed significantly better on the tests than those who had their phones right next to them.

Researchers concluded that having a phone within view reduces a person’s ability to focus and perform tasks. People are so accustomed to checking their phones that their subconscious has to work against that when they are trying to focus on something else.[2]

This effort to avoid focusing on the phone depletes the energy and attention that is actually concentrated on the task at hand. Removing the phone completely gives the subconscious a break from fighting off the urge to check for new texts or emails.

8 Processed Food

A poor diet early in life has been shown to have a negative impact on cognitive performance. Researchers examined the eating habits and intelligence levels of approximately 14,000 young children. Kids who were fed mainly processed foods at age three had lower average IQs five years later than kids who ate diets rich in vitamins and nutrients.

A diet high in vitamins and nutrients helps to encourage optimal brain development, while processed foods do not. Since the brain grows at its fastest rate during the first three years of life, the nutrition supplied during this time has a lasting impact on overall brain function.

In kids who had been fed mostly processed foods at age three, dietary improvements made later in life did little to improve their associated intelligence scores.[3]

7 Multitasking

Many studies have proven that multitasking is counterintuitive. The brain is incapable of focusing on more than one thing at a time. This means that the brain is actually switching its focus back and forth very quickly when multitasking. As a result, people are less successful in completing tasks simultaneously than if they had done them one at a time.

But many people claim to be good at multitasking, so researchers wondered if it might be a skill that certain people have a knack for. A team at Stanford University interviewed participants on their perception of how well they multitasked and then tested their ability to do so.

The results showed that the opposite was true. People who prided themselves on multitasking and felt that they excelled at doing so actually did worse at managing multiple tasks than those who said they preferred to focus on one thing at a time.[4]

Not only does multitasking result in poorer performance, but our IQ levels also drop when we attempt to focus on too many things at once. A study done by the Institute of Psychiatry in London found that multitasking caused a temporary 10-point decrease in IQ. This was larger than the decrease seen after smoking marijuana or missing a night’s sleep.

6 Sugar

Photo credit: Live Science

A diet high in fructose results in decreased intelligence after only six weeks.

Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, studied the effect of a high-fructose diet in rats. The rodents were taught to find their way through a maze before being split into two groups. Both groups were given fructose-infused water. But one group was also fed omega-3 fatty acids, which are believed to protect against brain cell damage.

After six weeks, the rats that had received omega-3 fatty acids performed significantly better in the maze than the ones that had not. The rats that had not received omega-3 fatty acids showed decreased synaptic activity and an inability to recall the route they had previously learned.[5]

Ingesting high levels of fructose affected the rats’ insulin levels. Brain cells use sugar as a fuel. A steady influx of fructose affects how brain cells store and use the substance, which affects how the cells perform when processing thoughts and emotions.

Luckily for sugar lovers, the omega-3 fatty acids did prove to prevent the brain cell damage caused by fructose, so a slab of salmon after a bowl of ice cream should keep your IQ from dropping.

5 A Long Commute

Driving more than two hours each day steadily decreases IQ. Researchers at the University of Leicester examined the lifestyles of more than 500,000 people over the course of five years, testing them on memory and intelligence throughout the study.

Of the participants, 93,000 drove more than two hours each day. They scored lower at the beginning of the study compared to those who did little to no driving. In addition, the long-distance drivers showed a steady decrease in cognitive ability over the length of the study.[6]

The mind is less active while on the road, and the lack of stimulation is believed to contribute to the decline in IQ. Similar results are seen in people who watch more than three hours of television each day.

4 Jet Lag

Photo credit: berkeley.edu

Jet lag can leave you feeling out of sorts for a few days. But when it comes to memory and learning, the effects last much longer than you may know.

Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, studied chronic jet lag in hamsters because these animals are a near-perfect model of circadian rhythms. Twice a week for one month, the researchers altered the hamsters’ schedule by six hours to simulate an international flight and time change.

The hamsters were tested on memory and learning tasks during the jet lag simulation as well as one month after they had been allowed to return to an uninterrupted sleep schedule. Testing done while the hamsters were on an alternate sleep schedule resulted in poor performances, as expected. The jet-lagged hamsters had difficulty learning simple tasks that hamsters on an uninterrupted sleep schedule had accomplished with ease.

But one month after the hamsters returned to their normal schedule, they continued to perform poorly on memory and learning tests. Further examination revealed that the hamsters subjected to the alternate sleep schedule had only half as many neurons in their hippocampi as the critters in the control group. This deficiency in the hippocampus was evident weeks after the hamsters had resumed their normal routine.

In addition to frequent international fliers, anyone who regularly changes his sleep schedule, such as someone who works a rotating third shift, would experience this hippocampus damage.[7]

3 Obesity

Excess body fat affects the way all of our organs function, including the brain.

Researchers examined the brains of 17 obese women. Their brains metabolized sugars faster than women in the control group, who were at an average weight. The obese women were tested on cognitive function before and after undergoing bariatric surgery.

The results of the testing done after the weight-loss surgery were markedly better than those done before the procedure. The formerly obese women showed particular cognitive improvements in executive functions, which deal with planning and organization.

The brains of obese people process sugars differently that those without excess body fat. It is believed that this difference in processing causes structural damage in the brain, which in turn affects cognitive performance.

Another study of nearly 500 adults showed that overweight people had less white matter than their average-sized peers.[8]

White matter connects different areas of the brain and allows them to communicate with each other. As we age, humans naturally lose white matter. But white matter deteriorates more quickly in an overweight person.

The volume of white matter measured in a 50-year-old obese person was the same as the volume measured in a 60-year-old lean person. Interestingly, the difference in white matter between overweight and average-sized people was only seen in those middle-aged or older. It is believed that we are more vulnerable to losing white matter during this time in our lives.

2 Being Spanked As A Child

Photo credit: mothermag.com

A study done on children in the US found that kids who had been spanked had lower IQs than their peers who had not.

Researchers tested the cognitive abilities of two groups of children from ages two to four and five to nine. Four years later, they retested the children in each age group.

In the older age group, the kids who had been spanked had an average IQ of almost three points lower than children who had not been spanked. In the younger age group, the average IQ of children who had been spanked was five points lower than those who had not.

Worldwide data also showed that countries where spanking was more prevalent also had a lower average IQ.

One explanation offered for the correlation between spanking and IQ was stress. Researchers say that being swatted as a child can be a chronic stressor for kids, causing them to become easily startled and often fearful. These factors are associated with a lower IQ.

It could also be that instead of spanking lowering your childs IQ, households that use spanking as a disciplinary measure are already within a lower Intelligence Quotient.  Correaltion ain't causation yo.

Corporal punishment rates have been declining globally. Scientists believe this will lead to a worldwide increase in average IQs.[9]

1 Dumb TV Shows

Researchers have discovered that when it comes to intelligence, you are what you watch.

While it is fair to say that certain shows are informative, there are plenty of trashy shows that do not offer any educational value. However, in addition to lacking substance, stupid television shows have also been proven to actually make people dumber.

Markus Appel, an Austrian psychologist and professor, tested a group of college students on various subjects. Before administering the test, half the students were given a story about a silly man making all sorts of bad decisions. After reading about the not-so-smart shenanigans of the character, those students performed worse on the tests than the students who had not read the story.

Appel blames the results on “media priming.” Media priming refers to the residual, often unintended, effects of being exposed to media. This can result in changes in behavior, opinions, or intelligence.

This means that watching a reality show with a dumb person on it might seem funny, but their stupidity is contagious.[10]

Why Do We Have Pubic Hair?

Why Do We Have Pubic Hair?

What is the reason why humans grow pubic hair? Should you be shaving or trimming your pubic hair or is it better for you if you keep it growing?

Why Does The Cold Make You Pee?

Why Does The Cold Make You Pee?

Not everyone gets a winter as cold (or at the same time) as we do at SciShow, but no matter where you live, you may have wondered why venturing out into the cold often makes you have to pee more often.

How Your Dog Descended From Wolves

How Your Dog Descended From Wolves

Man's best friend, the good ole doggo. Some are cute, some goofy, some big, and some small. But did you know they all likely descended from a group of ancient wolves. Yes, your fluffy lovable dog was once a carnivorous beast. But how?



10 Of The Maddest Scientists To Ever Exist

10 Of The Maddest Scientists To Ever Exist -

There are people who love science and then there are those who go a little overboard. Not all men of science follow the scholarly scientific process to determine the validity of their experiments. Some of them go beyond normal processes and methods to test their theories. They are a curious lot who find even the strangest methods to prove their theories right. In fact, most of these inventions exist due to the craziness of these scientists.

1. Barry Marshall
To prove that he would get an ulcer, he drank bacteria
Image Source: www.popularmechanics.com

While everyone claimed that bacteria had no chance surviving in the stomach, Barry Marshal had other ideas; the Australian doctor knew that ulcers were caused by bacteria. He had watched his patients recover fully after antibiotic therapy but when he tried to make his findings public, the medical fraternity refused.
Barry Marshal decided to drink some bacteria to prove his point. Few days after and gastroenteritis symptoms began their kick in. He did confirm that he was right but he was in trouble. He biopsied his stomach and isolated the bacteria which he later got rid of using antibiotics. He won the Noble Prize in Physiology.

2. Werner Forssmann
He put a catheter into his heart.

Image Source: www.popularmechanics.com

Heart surgery was still in its early stages in 1929 and physicians were struggling to treat cardiac patients. Forssmann had this idea that if he snaked a hollow tube through a patient’s vein, he would reach the heart. His colleagues at Eberswalde, Germany, totally disagreed with this idea, claiming it would be fatal.
To prove his point, Werner Forssmann shoved a catheter into his heart.

One of the nurses was willing to help out and agreed to sneak Forssmann sterile supplies, but only if he did the surgery on her instead of himself. He agreed to this and anesthetized the nurse. Then, he cut his own arm, blindly guided the catheter into his heart and triumphantly (and still breathing), hobbled to the X-Ray lab to show his colleagues his handiwork.

He received a Nobel Prize in Medicine years later after he made a promise to never operate on himself or knock out a nurse again.

3. Stubbins Ffirth
To show malaria is not contagious, he rubbed vomit into his eyes

Image Source: www.wikimedia.org

Medical student Subbins Ffirth wanted to prove that malaria wasn’t contagious when the yellow fever epidemic hit in 1793. He failed. He smeared vomit that was infected onto his open wounds and rubbed it into his eyes. It didn’t affect him. He went on and sampled blood and urine from these same patients but he didn’t get the disease.

Malaria is quite a contagious disease but why didn’t Ffirth get it? Some critics suspect he used vomit from patients in their late-stage of malaria who were no longer contagious. Others were of the opinion that Ffirth didn’t inject the infected blood into his bloodstream directly. He got lucky, if rubbing vomit into one’s eyes can be considered that.

4. Thor Heyerdahl
You could call him, the Norwegian Indiana Jones. 

Image Source: www.popularmechanics.com

Thor Heyerdahl was an adventurer that studied geography, botany and biology. He used wild expeditions to prove his archaeological theories. He once sailed using a homemade reed raft across the Pacific Ocean.

Heyerdahl suspected that tiny reed boats were used by ancient people to sail the high seas and trade their wares. When mainstream anthropologists said it could be done, Heyerdahl took it as his cue to embark on this DIY project.  He assembled a team in 1947 and they created a bare-bones boat using bent reed. For the next 101 days, they voyaged 4300 miles across the Pacific Ocean to prove they could.

In 2011, Heyerdahl’s hypothesis was further reinforced by genetic evidence. However some mainstream anthropologists maintain that the sea stunt didn’t prove a thing.

5. Tycho Brahe
Lost his nose in a duel over mathematics

Image Source: www.channel4.com

Danish nobleman, Tycho Brahe, was an irascible and eccentric astronomer who owned a pet moose and midget jesters. He loved arguing about math and at a dinner party in 1566 got into a heated debate over a mathematical formula. One of his guests made a mistake of disagreeing with him and an outraged Brahe challenged him into a rapier duel.

Brahe was great mathematician but a poor swordsman and that’s how he lost the bridge of his nose. He didn’t stop there though and continued to exploit widgets. He was also a famous astronomer who explored the cosmos, but he did all this while wearing a prosthetic nose that was made of precious metals.

6. August Bier
Beat up his assistant to test anesthesia

Image Source: www.nytimes.com

Good surgery requires great anesthesia. German physician, August Bier decided to develop an aesthetic technique that was better in 1898. His theory was that he could numb his patients without having to put them to sleep by injecting cocaine into the space that’s around the spinal cord. To make sure that it was a working theory, he decided to try the spinal anesthesia on himself.
Liquid cocaine was injected into his spine by an assistant but the assistant fumbled on the procedure and Bier stepped in. He numbed the leg of his assistant and continued to beat him up so as to see if he could feel pain. He burned him with cigars and used iron hammers to the shins.
By the end of the experiment, (of course) he lost an assistant but gained recognition worldwide as the slightly sadistic father of anesthesia.

7. Sir Henry Head
He surgically removed his nerves so as to study pain.

Image Source: www.english.rfi.fr

British Neurologist, Sir Henry Head had a hard time understanding how pain worked. He spent time interviewing nerve damage patients about what they felt exactly. He didn’t get an exclusive description from them and decided to try it out himself.

He ordered one of his surgeon friends to surgically remove a portion of his radical nerve. When his motor functions were severed, he began conducting strange experiments on himself.  He recorded his pain in detail and this earned him a knighthood and various Nobel Prize nominations. Most importantly, he got peace of mind; “I shall know a great deal about pain by the time this is over.”

8. George Stratton
To prove that the brain adapts, he wore inverted lenses  for over a week.

Image Source: www.newscientist.com

The American psychologist, George Stratton studied sensory perception during the 1890s. He was certain that the brain would correct imbalance and turn everything right side up. He decided to try the theory himself.

He started living in an upside-down world and by the fourth day, was sick and disoriented. His vision however remained inverted. By day five, the images started turning right-side up and by day eight navigation of the upside-down world became easy to him. When he finally removed the glasses, the right-side up spun around him, and he couldn’t tell right from left till his brain adjusted. He therefore concluded that the mind can adjust senses to meet environmental pressures. The upside-down world is therefore not so confusing.

9. Elsie Widdowson
Developed the minimum wartime diet by starving herself

Image Source: www.popularmechanics.com

During World War II, wartime rations were few and sometimes civilians were left hungry and worried about malnutrition. Dietician and chemist, Elsie Widdowson, resolved to find a solution to this by finding the minimum dietary needs required for one to survive. When she couldn’t get a solution to her problem, she stopped eating.

She subjected herself to various starvation diets and survived on only meager portions of cabbage, bread, and potatoes for a few months. To prove that this minimum rations would sustain different lifestyles, she climbed mountains and hiked trails daily. Her records of overall health throughout the regiment were eventually used as Britain’s wartime diet.

10. Kevin Warwick
Turned himself into a cyborg prototype.

Image Source: www.kevinwarwick.com

Kevin Warwick, British scientist and cybernetics professor, likes robots so much. He felt like robotic research was failing and decided to become the first cyborg in the world.

His first experiments were not at all ambitious. He got an RFID chip implanted onto his arm in 1998. The chip turned on lights, interfaced with computers, and helped open electric doors. By 2002 however, he went full robot. He used electronics, surgery and his fearlessness to test whether his nervous system would integrate with a neural interface. He even went ahead and tried to relay his emotions electronically to another cyborg recruit who was his wife.

The whole experiment does look like a disaster waiting to happen but Warwick reminds us that though research is risky, unsetting and transgressive, there are scientists out there who would do anything to prove their theories right.





President Johnson was once asked why the US was in Vietnam. He pulled out his dick, waved it at the reporter and said, “This is why.”


That’s right, they can use their dicks to pick stuff up. Not only that, they use them to prop themselves up to reach leaves.


I’m sure we’ve covered before how horny these primates can be, but you were probably unaware that they’re diddling their bits with wooden dicks.


Yeah, that’s all I got for this. I’m daydreaming.


They also have two uteruses. This means they can stay perpetually pregnant, or it’s perpetually that time of the month.


The surgery takes about 20 minutes. By those numbers, about 500 dudes are getting the snip right now…


 You still kiss your momma on the lips?


Allegedly, Benjamin Franklin was totally into older women and even famously wrote a letter titled, “Advice to a friend on choosing a mistress” in which he praised their abilities. He probably plagiarized it from Tesla…


Scientists have found that dolphins and humans are the only two creatures that, if given a mirror, will eventually use it to peep their own junk.


While in estrus, mares will mate with every male in their area. This way the stallions don’t know who the father is and won’t try to kill the foal to get more horsey-style.


Scientists can determine if a woman has had an orgasm lately just by observing how she walks. And now you’re all headed to google to be “scientists” too.


Scientists realized this by ripping their members off. I’m sure there is a very good scientific reason for why their penises grow back, but mostly I want to know why they were ripping them off in the first place.


In most men, the left testicle hangs a little lower than the right. If the right hangs lower, that means he’s probably a lefty.


Some (lucky?) women have orgasms during birth. It’s apparently incredibly rare, but what a world we live in!


… and reportedly died while giving it to his art teacher.


You know, if you’re into that freaky shit, and you’re also analytical as fuck, this might come in handy. Plan ahead.


If you set up and scan your member like you would your finger, you can legit use it to unlock your iPhone.


Somewhere out there one of you little freaks is definitely touching the inside of his mouth.


Maybe that’s why beer is so irresistible to most men?


Whale’s penises are called dorks.


Like all snowflakes are unique and we all have a different fingerprint, your sphincter also has its own distinct pattern.

16 Weird Facts About Sex Even Your Most Experienced Friend Won’t Know

16 Weird Facts About Sex Even Your Most Experienced Friend Won’t Know


1. If you’re allergic to brazil nuts, you might have an allergic reaction during sex

If you’re allergic to brazil nuts and have sex with somebody who just ate some, you might have an allergic reaction. It’s the only sexually transmitted allergic reaction we know of (so far).

— Erft

2. There’s a female version of ‘phallic’

The female version of phallic is yonic.

— alter_ego77

3. ‘Bukkake’ doesn’t actually mean what you think it means

Most people have heard the term bukkake from porn. This is actually a Japanese word that means “to pour over’. There’s a delicious Japanese dish traditionally had for breakfast called Tamago Bukkake Gohan’. Which essentially means egg poured over rice.

— Tippynut

4. There’s a reason it’s easier for women to have sex at certain times

The Cervix has a cycle where it raises up into the body making it easier/more comfortable to have sex if a woman is at the opposite point on her cycle from her period and lowers down making it harder the closer it is to her period.

— haelesor

5. Male orgasms last longer than you think

The male orgasm starts with ejaculation. It can last longer than most women think. Men don’t ejaculate because they had had an orgasm, they do so because they are orgasming.

Too often I’ve seen women stop when the liquid part starts and that’s just bad.

— not_better

6. Water has the opposite effective of lube

Water is the opposite of lube

— createusername32

7. Human sperm isn’t the only kind that can penetrate human eggs

Human eggs can be penetrated by hamster’s sperm.

— Cyborg_Sorachi

8. The clit is much bigger than you think

What most people think is the clitoris is actually just the glans of the clitoris. The clitoris is actually a much larger organ that extends internally around the vaginal opening and has a ring around the vagina itself. Odds are that internal orgasm are actually clitoral orgasms. It is mostly comprised of erectile tissue and so can “get hard” with proper stimulation.

— Ugh_ughzee

9. Orgasms can help with headaches

Orgasm can get rid of a headache, at least for men

— TheQwertyPickle

10. There’s a very sensitive, concealed part of the penis

As a man ejaculates, you can gently compress the base of the penis which is concealed in the scrotum to reach greater levels of pleasure.

Like… the peen doesn’t just stick out yo pube mound. It goes deeper within, and can be tantalized

— Saucy_Apples

11. The penis and the clitoris are anatomically the same body part

The penis and the clitoris are anatomically the same body part, altered only by hormones that make one grow. The scar under your scrotum is a closed vagina. We are all formed from a unisex template.

— porncompilationguy

12. It’s easier for women to conceive after they’ve just given birth

That it’s much easier to conceive, and women are much more fertile, when they’ve just given birth. Loads of people think “hey ho, her period hasn’t started again yet, let’s go for it,” hence loads of siblings born a year apart.

— PJM1990

13. Most women can’t orgasm from penetrative sex

Most women can’t orgasm from penetrative sex. Depending on the study, it can be as low as 20% or as high 50% that can. I can’t remember if it was Masters and Johnson or Kinsey for the high number. Most studies I have read that it is around 1/3 of women that can orgasm from penetrative sex.

95% of women can orgasm from clitoral stimulation.

I am not saying that the majority of women don’t want or enjoy penetrative sex, but the for the majority a man can pound away all day in every position and she isn’t going to achieve orgasm.

You would be surprised how many women don’t even know this. They think they or their partners are doing something wrong or they are the minority, the reality is they are the majority.

— Jukung11

14. The brain doesn’t control ejaculation

Late but; the part of the body that controls ejaculation is not actually in the brain, its in the spine. A dude who gets decapitated can still ejaculate.

— Limfao93

15. You still produce semen after a vasectomy

After a vasectomy you still produce semen. I thought you would just get the feeling but nothing would come out again. I never knew sperm and semen were not the same thing until the doctor performing mine told me. The only difference is sperm from the testes doesn’t get mixed into the semen after you have a vasectomy. You won’t be able to tell the difference.

— fatherping

16. There’s a reason why some people sneeze when they’re aroused

The nose has the same kind of erectile tissue found in the genitals, which is why some people may sneeze when they get aroused.

— Whoosier


Mom Finds Photo Of Daughter's Lesbian Make-Out Session With Tutor

Mom Finds Photo Of Daughter's Lesbian Make-Out Session With Tutor


Camella Rodgers, an Indiana teacher at Famersville Elementary School, was supposed to be tutoring a 17-year-old girl in biology, but it became pretty clear Rodgers was doing more than that when the girl’s mother found a photo of Rodgers making out with the teen.

It seems that community members learned of the relationship between Rodgers and the teen when a photo of them kissing somehow ended up online. And that photo reached the teen’s mom.

Rodgers was also the teen’s track coach, but something tells me that won’t be the case much longer. After learning an arrest warrant had been issued for her, Rodgers turned herself into police and pleaded not guilty to child seduction. Rodgers is also accused of engaging in “various sexual acts” with the teen on multiple occasions.

And this won’t come as a shocker, but Rodgers quit her job once all this got out.

No word yet on how the teen did on her latest biology test.


Are You Tall? Left-Handed? A Heavy Drinker? You're Probably A Genius

Are You Tall? Left-Handed? A Heavy Drinker? You're Probably A Genius


This video runs through a bunch of traits that correlate with intelligence, such as height, birth order and taste for alcohol. You probably possess some of these traits — ergo, you're the next Einstein. (Yeah, we're pretty smart too.)





The stunning video biologist Nan Hauser and her team were able to capture, including point-of-view footage, show how the whale pushed the woman with his head and his mouth, tucked her under its pectoral fin, even lifted the biologist out of the water.

FASCINATING FACTS: 18 Identical Facts About Twins

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Scientist Shares The Grimmest Ways To Die

Scientist Shares The Grimmest Ways To Die

After a few pints, conversation can be known to take some pretty dark turns before someone eventually pipes up with: 'Would you rather die from drowning or be shot by a firing squad?' Well, now when such questions arise, you can answer with a bit of science to back you up.

Paul Doherty, a senior scientist at San Francisco's Exploratorium, and writer Cody Cassidy took questions from the public during a Reddit Q&A session earlier this year, where they revealed some of the worst ways you could die - as a word of warning, some of them are pretty grim.

These included being consumed by a bone-eating snot flower - or an Osedax mucofloris as it's scientifically known - after sinking to the bottom of the Mariana trench, the deepest part of the ocean.

Credit: Google Maps

"Fortunately you're mostly water, and water is incompressible," Doherty said. "So you would retain your basic human shape.

"The air pockets inside you, namely in your nasal cavity, throat and chest, would be a problem, though. Those would collapse inward, which would be fatal.

"Because you wouldn't have any air, you wouldn't float to the surface and you would likely stay at the bottom to be consumed by the bone-eating snot flowers, which usually eats whale bones but would probably make an exception in this case."

Falling through to the centre of the Earth? Yep, that would be one of the worst ways to die according to Doherty.

"The pressure and density of the air starts out doubling every 15,000 feet of depth (3 miles)," he said, "so after 10 doublings at 15,000 feet and 30 miles, the air is as dense as water and you sink no further."

When it comes to death by neutron star - the collapsed core of a large star - you'll probably be killed by radiation.

Credit: PA

But neutron stars are also strong magnets, and Doherty says that at those levels of magnetism human atoms would be "distorted into thin cigars and all the bonds between atoms that make up the molecules in your body are broken so you become a plasma-shaped human cloud that is tidally stretched and pulled into the star where you impact the surface and generate lethal gamma radiation."

What about being in an elevator that falls to the bottom of the floor? Apparently if you're standing up, your organs 'may keep falling even though your body has stopped'.

Doherty instead suggests laying flat on your back, as this spreads out the G forces evenly though your body.

"Crossing your fingers is also a good idea," he added.

Doherty also says that, while there are no magnets on Earth that could kill you, it's only because we're yet to create one strong enough.

And although one scientist who put his face in a highly radioactive particle accelerator (as you do) didn't die, he died suffer horrific injuries and nearly died from poisoning - suggesting that if you stuck any body part into the stronger Large Hadron Collider, things could get fatal.

So let's all stay away from particle accelerators, neutron stars and giant magnets, shall we?


Lies You Were Told About The Human Body

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Top 10 Strangest Things That Happen To Your Body In Space

Top 10 Strangest Things That Happen To Your Body In Space


Space is the final frontier. Being in zero gravity for extended periods of time does some wacky things to the human body. Unless aliens show up and teach us how to deal with these unique challenges, it’s up to scientists to discover ways for the human body to cope.